In apoptosis (programmed cell death), cell volume shrinks dramatically and the cytoskeleton is modified. The […]

Binary fission

Prokaryotes use binary fission. Two cells arise from one. Cells elongate to twice their original […]

Cell division

Eukaryotes Mitosis Mitosis is a eukaryotic process whereby a cell divides to produce two daughter […]


Endospores are produced by sporulation. Endospores are differentiated cells highly ressistant to heat, chemicals & […]

Eukaryotic cell cycle

Growth 1 (G1) Two types of proteins control the eukaryotic cell cycle: CDKs and ubiquitin-protein […]

Homologous recombination

During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are paired and aligned. This allows homologous recombination or crossing over […]

Spontaneous generation

It was once believed that microbes generated spontaneously. For example, meat was believed to rot […]

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