Birds and Mammals: Mesoderm Subdivisions and Derivatives

The mesodermal layer of the early embryo forms as a result of gastrulation. This mesodermal […]

Cell movement in development

Invagination, involution, ingression and convergent extension are the types of cell movement during gastrulation. Invagination […]

Ectodermal appendages

What Are Ectodermal Placodes? What Sensory Organs Do They Form? A placode is a thickened […]


In birds and mammals, the endoderm is a disk that invaginates, starting at its anterior […]

Endoderm-Mesoderm Interaction

Development of endodermal organs is dependent on interaction between the endoderm and the surrounding mesoderm. […]

Epidermal ectoderm

Epidermal ectoderm gives rise to teeth, hair, nails, mammary glands, scales and feathers. Via epithelio-mesenchymal […]

Epithelial placodes

Development of placodes in the epithelium involves multiple inductive interactions between the epithelium and other […]


The end result of gastrulation is the transformation of the blastula, which consists of a […]

Germ layers

Clarifying Note: Splanchnic mesoderm & somatic mesoderm are layers of lateral plate mesoderm adjacent to […]


Cells that are not organized into an epithelium are called mesenchymal. A mesenchyme is a […]

Paraxial mesoderm

How Does the Node Compare To the Spemann Organizer? What Is the Node? Hensen's Node […]

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