Chi-squared test

The Chi-squared test (or goodness of fit) is a test to determine if the observed […]

Gene regulation

Transcriptional control Some signals can be small molecules entering cells called effectors. Transcription and translation […]

Genetics and Genomics Questions

References: Molecular Cell Biology 5th Edition, H. Lodish et al., W. H. Freeman & Co., […]

Genomic imprinting

Imprinting is the deactivation of a locus in gametes of only one sex. A maternally […]

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

The Hardy-Weinberg Law is an equation that predicts genotypic frequencies based on the frequencies of […]


A homeodomain is a highly conserved protein domain (first identified in Antp and Ubx proteins) […]

Human genetics

PedigreeA graphical family tree using standardized symbols. Germ CellConstituting the germline, germ cells differentiate into […]

Insertion sequence elements

Bacterial IS elements (Insertion Sequence) and equivalent eukaryotic elements have a diagnostic structure: a central […]

Lac Operon

Native to E. coli, the lac operon allows cells to use lactose (a sugar found […]

Linkage analysis

Linkage is the tendency of genes, which are closely located on the same chromosome, to […]

LOD Score

The LOD score (aka Z) gives an estimation of how closely two loci are linked […]

Mendelian genetics

Fertilization (the union of two haploid gametes) results in a zygote (fertilized egg) that is […]


A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence or arrangement of DNA; mutations are […]


Nondisjunction is a rare event that occurs in when paired homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids […]


If there is more than one common allele for a gene — such as with […]


For most diploid species, sex is determined by one of the homologous pair of sex […]

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