To pack DNA into the tiny nucleus (the DNA packing problem), DNA is tightly wound […]

Crossing over

In Meiosis I, homologous chromosomes (for example, two Chromsome 21's) pair and each pair lines […]


DNA is not really two parallel lines, as we diagram it, is not straight, but […]

DNA Binding Proteins

Below are examples of different types of DNA-binding proteins. The most common and best studied […]

Eukaryotic genome

A mammalian chromosome is massive, with tens to hundreds of megabases of DNA. The entire […]

Exon shuffling

Exon shuffling can lead to a common domain being found in a variety of proteins. […]


A gene is the nucleic acid sequence needed to synthesize a particular gene product. A […]

Genetic code

Features of the genetic code No OverlapThe codons do not overlap. ContinutyThere are no gaps […]

Histone modification

Sir2 is a histone deacetylase found in all eukaryotes. Sir3 and Sir4 associate with Rap1 […]

Interspersed repeats

The most common type of repetitive DNA are interspersed repeats or moderately repeated sequences. These […]

Nonsense-Mediated Decay

Human disease mutations that create nonsense mutations do not always produce a truncated protein. Often […]

Polytene chromosome

Some specialized eukaryotic cells increase cell volume via endomitosis, where DNA synthesis is repeated without […]

Repetitious DNA

ClassLengthCopy #GenomeOverview Tandem RepeatsVariable20 - 3000.3%Encode rRNAs, tRNAs, snRNAs and histones. In some cases, the […]

RNA Binding Proteins

The pre-mRNA binds many proteins during transcription. Although collectively called hnRNP proteins, they in fact […]

RNA Interference

RNA interference pathways (RNAi) are mediated by small sequence-specific RNA molecules that shut down gene […]

Transposable elements

Transposable elements were first discovered by Barbara McClintock in kernels of corn, where certain mutations […]

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