There are two types of centrifugation, differential and rate-zonal centrifugation. Differential centrifugation separates matters according […]


In chromatrography, molecules are dissolved in a solution (phenol) and migrate by simple diffusion into […]

Chromosome Banding

The 24 types of human chromosome can be distinguished by different staining procedures. Each chromosome […]

Detailed Correlation Chart for IR Spectroscopy

C-HAlkanes(stretch)3000-2850s -CH3(bend)1450 & 1375m -CH2-(bend)1465m Alkenes(stretch)3100-3000m Alkenes(out-of-plane bend)1000-650s Aromatics(stretch)3150-3050s (out-of-plane bend)900-690s Alkyne(stretch)ca. 3300s Aldehyde2900-2800w 2800-2700w […]

DNA microarray

DNA microarrays consist of glass or silicone chip with thousands or hundreds DNA segments (called […]


Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detects presence of an antibody or antigen in an aliquot. Two […]

Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis separates and visualizes molecules. To separate molecules, they are placed in agarose gel […]

Gram Stain

Gram staining distinguishes cells based on bacterial cell walls. Gram-positive organisms have a thick cell […]

Imaging Methods

Numerical aperture is a measure of light-gathering ability. (Compound) Light MicroscopeThese use visible light. Bright-field, […]


Immunofluorescence uses molecules that bind to specific cellular components and when the proper substrates are […]

Northern Blot

Northern Blots (aka RNA Blots) determine the size of an mRNA transcript (via gel electrophoresis) […]

Oxidase Test

The oxidase test assays for the presence of cytochrome c in a cell's respiratory pathway. […]

Southern Blot

Southern Blots (aka Southern Transfers) allow researchers to locate DNA fragments of research amidst even […]


TUNEL assay stands for terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling. When a cell undergoes […]

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