Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)

Botulism is a Category A bioweapon. It has a highly stable spore capable of surviving […]

Competition Assay

Competition assay tests virulence factor. Mix mutant and WT strains of bacteria. If mutant has […]

Drug Resistance

How Can Resistance Occur? Underproduction of proteins required for drug activation. Underproduction of a membrane […]

Extracellular Bacterial Protein Toxins

NameOrganismActivity Anthrax ToxinBacillus anthracisEdema Factor (EF) is an adenylatecyclase that causes increased levels in intracellular […]

Foodborne Illness

Foodborne illnesses can be caused by microbes two different ways: poisoning and infection. Food poisoning […]

Foodborne Infections

Salmonella spp.S. thyphimurium is usual cause of human salmonellosis Gram negative, motile rods, non-sporeforming common […]

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter pylori secretes urease to maintain a basic/neutral environment. Lophotrichous tufted flagella, powered by a […]

Intracellular pathogens

Intracellular BacteriaMycobacterium species; Listeria monocytogenes. Intracellular FungiPneumocystis carinii; Candida albicans. Intracellular ParasitesLeishmania spp.. VirusesAll viruses […]


Spirochetes are helically shaped, either resembling a corkscrew or a flat wave. Spirochetes have hidden […]


There are two ways that toxins are released into the environment. Some cells will secrete […]

Virulence Factor

Virulence factors are cellular properties which promote pathogenesis. Without these virulence factors, pathogenesis is attenuated […]

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