B cell

B cells (aka B lymphocytes) produce antibody when exposed to their complementary antigen. These antibodies […]

B Cell Receptor

Cross-linking of a membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg) with its complementary antigen initiates a signal transduction cascade […]

Cells of the immune system

After understanding Clonal Expansion Theory, it is important to become familiar with the origin and […]

Clonal Expansion Theory

The discovery of B cells led to a modern theory of antibody production called Clonal […]

Clusters of differentiation

CDOverview CD1Human CD1 is encoded by five non-polymorphic and closely linked (very near each other) […]


Hematopoiesis is the development of blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). A stem cell […]

Humoral response

Antibody production by activated B cells is the core the humoral response: antibody effects, such […]

Immunological disorders

The most important function of the human immune system occurs at the cellular level of […]


The immune system has evolved to deal with invasion by microbial pathogens. The main task […]

Immunology knockouts

KnockoutOverview IL-6You get normal development except there are no plasma cells. IL-6 is required for […]

Instructional theory vs Selective theory

Instructional theories postulated that antigens play a central role in determining antibody specificity. Conversely, selective […]


Interferon (IFN) is secreted by a virally infected cell, and induces an anti-viral state in […]

Natural Killer Cells

Natural killer cells (NK cells) are part of the innate immune system. Instead of directly […]


X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) stems from a mutation in either common γ chain gene […]

T cell

So many names for T cells! T cells -- also known as T lymphocytes or […]

T Cell Receptor (TCR)

The T cell receptor (TCR) is a T cell surface receptor that recognizes antigens presented […]

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