Arad is 8.9 hectares, surrounded by a wall that is 2/2.5 m wide, 4/5 m […]


View Iraqi Kurdistan in a larger map Ashur (aka Assur or Asur) is on the […]

Bab edh-Dhrâ

Located on the plain southeast of the Dead Sea in Jordan, Bab edh-Dhrâ has been […]


Babylon consists of three mounds: Kasr, which means castle; Babil; Amran Ibn'Ali; and Djumdjuma (Jastrow […]


One thing characteristic of Chalcolithic culture in the Beersheba area is the chalcolythic urn. Ceramic […]


Borsippa (modern Birs Nimrud) had a striking ruin of a ziggurat rising high above its […]


Ebla (originally tel Mardeep) was an ancient city in modern Tell Mardikh (65 km south […]


Ephesus was a wealthy Greek city on the west coast of Asia Minor. It benefited […]


Who were the gods of Eridu? From the texts dating from historical times we know […]


Iznik is the city of Dionysus, God of Wine. According to myth, Nicaea (daughter of […]


Jericho (Tell es-Sultan) is a Levantine site given great Biblical weight as the first site […]

Kar Tukulti Ninurta

Kar Tukulti Ninurta (modern Tulul al Aqar) was built by Tukulti Ninurta I, just across […]

Karum Kanesh

View Larger Map Amorites were mobile pastoralists perhaps living in North central syria near the […]

Kish (modern Tell al-Uhaymir)

Sumerian Palace at Kish The Sumerian Palace was built by Sargon, who founded the Agade […]


The largest group of Early Dynastic inscriptions comes from the southern state of Lagash, where […]


Megiddo was an Early Bronze Age village noted for having the largest altar of the […]

Mesopotamian fauna

Empires trimmed away Mesopotamia's fauna, but certain species remained widespread 1:4. The bison and long-maned […]

Mousterian Industry

The Mousterian industry of the general type found at Spilik and Babkhal was first encountered […]

Near Eastern terrain

Some useful vocabulary: تل tell means hill in Arabic; گردی gardi means hill of in […]


Parsa, commonly known by its Greek name Persepolis, was one of the Aechemenid Empire’s five […]


Samaria was the capital of Israel and Sargon (721-705) had to finish the siege of […]


In 307 BC, Seleucus Nikator, Alexander the Great’s successor, founded Seleucia, the Asian capital of […]


Sarcophagus of Tabnit (?), king of Sidon (5th cent. BC) I, Tabnit, priest of Astarte, […]

Tel Dor

Tel Dor, the best-preserved Persian Period settlement, was a very sophisticated port city (there were […]

Tell el-'Ajjul

Tell el-'Ajjul (aka Tell Sharuhen; Ancient Gaza) is a Bronze Age site in Southern Palestine […]

Tell es-Sa'idiyeh

In the central Jordan Valley near the river Jordan, the large double mound of Tell […]

בית שאן Beit Shean

בית שאן Beit Shean is known as بيسان‎ Beesan in Arabic. Its name in English […]

وركاء Uruk

Uruk (aka Erech; modern Warka) is humanity's first major city and was one Mesopotamia's most […]

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