Heat Capacity Q = m c ΔT Q = Heat needed to change the object's […]


Magnetic field of a loop of wire: B = µ0 I / 2 R Capacitor […]

Electricity and Magnetism

Force (F) Force from a charge: F = E q Two charges q1 and q2 […]

Fluid Dynamics

Mass Flow Ratekg / s Δmass / Δtime Δm1 / Δt = Δm2 / Δt […]

Fluid Statics

Density (ρ)mass / volume(kg/m3)Characteristic property of a pure substance. Below air density values (ρ0) at […]


When two surfaces are in contact, there is an electrical attraction between atoms of one […]

Human Eye

Near Point (NP, N)meters (m)Closest distance the eye can focus clearly. A normal eye has […]

Ideal Gas Law

Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law (aka the Equation of State for an ideal […]

Interference and Diffraction

InterferenceInterference occurs when three criteria are met: monochromatic waves (all the same wavelength); coherent waves; […]


vf = vi + a t xf = xi + ½ ( vi + vf […]

Mirrors and lenses

Image Distance (di, q)meters di = ( do F ) / ( do - F […]

Newton’s Law of Gravitation

Every object in the universe exerts a gravitational pull on every other object. Magnitude of […]

Newton’s laws of motion

Newton's First Law: Law of inertia An object's velocty will not change unless a force […]


Incident Angle (θ)Angle from the normal to the surface. Refraction Index (n) n = c […]


Wave Number (k)radians m-1k = ω / v k = 2 π ƒ / v […]

Physics of Breakdancing

In breakdancing, a headspin is a basic power move (a move requiring tremendous strength to […]


PolarizationA property of light is that it can be polarized. Unpolarized light points in all […]


Power measures howquickly work gets done. For example, a force of 100J of work in […]

Thermal expansion

Linear expansion Δℓ = α ℓc ΔT ℓh = ℓc ( 1 + α ΔT […]

Thermodynamic Systems

There are three kinds of thermodynamic systems: Isolated systemsDo not exchange heat, work, nor matter […]


Two vectors are equal if they have the same units, magnitude, and direction. 1. Vectors […]

Privacy Policy