Past TenseOccured in the past and usually formed by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Walked, talked, looked.
InfinitiveVerbs action occurs in present and the subject is a plural noun or the pronoun I, we, you, they, and had "to" attached. To walk, to talk, to do.
Verbal PhraseOverview
InfinitiveFunctions as a noun, ajective, adverb. An infinitive consists of the plain form of the verb (listed in the dictinary) and are usually preceded by "to" We were preparing to runinfinite.

A participal ends in -ing, -ed, -n and functions as an adjective. Remember: a verbal can never function as the main verb in a sentence.

Present ParticipleVerb showing completed action. Formed by adding "ing" to the verb infinite. May combine with forms of the verb be (am, is, are, was, were). Am walking. Is walking. Are talking. Was doing. Were learning.
Past ParticipleContinuing action. Most comonly ends in -d, -ed, -n, -en, used with a form of to be in the passive voice. Verb form used with have, has, had. Have walked. Has seen. Had done.
GerundA gerund ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The form of the gerund is the same as that of the prsent participle. Runninggerund isverb good exercise.


Relative PronounWho Which That
Demonstrative PronounThis That These Those
Interrogative Pronouns/th>Who Is That? Which is Mine? What was that?
Reflexive PronounMyself Themselves Yourselves Hisself Herself
Intensive PronounI myself; They themselves; She herself; He Himself; You yourself
Infinitive PronounEach, one, anybody, all, somebody
Reciprocal PronounEach other; One another


A preposition is a word used with a noun or pronoun (ordinarily called the object of the preposition) to form a phrase. In other words, a preposition relates nouns or pronouns to other words in a sentence. Remember: objects of prepositions can never be the subject of a sentence.

The preposition introduces a prepositional phrase. Where something is. When somehting is. With the word "to" or "of"

About above across after against along around before behind below beneath beside between byeond despite down during except from inside into like near onto outside over past round since thrugh "according to" "along with" "because of" concserning "exce[t for" excepting "in addition to" "in psite of" "instead of" regarding as at by for in of off on out to throughout towrd under undernath unlike upon up to with within till up without


Express feeling or command attention, either alone or in a sentence. It is usually independnt of the rest of the sentence. Often it serves as an introduction: Oh! He's going to fall! Some words are pure interjections. However, most parts of speech can be used as interjections: Ridiculous! I don't believe it! Helen! This can't be true!


Conjuctive adverbs

Futhermore, consequently, moreover, therefore, finally, however, etc.

Conjuctive adverbs are not conjunctions, they are adverbs. Unlike coorindating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs do not bind the two clauses into a grammatical unit. Rather, as adverbs, they describe the relation of the ideas in two clauses.

The game was exciting; consequently, we stayed to the end.

Coordinating ConjunctionThe game was exciting, and we stayed to the end.
Subordinating ConjunctionBecause the game was exciting, we stayed to the end.


An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjecive or another verb (never a noun). An adverb usualy answers one of these questions: where? when? how? To what extent? When an adverb modifies an adjective, or an adverb, it usually comes immediately before the word it modifies: very happy, almost certainly. But when an adverb modifies a verb, it may appear almost anywhere in a sentence.


Descriptive AdjectivesName some quality of the noun (beautiful girl or dark horse).
Limiting AdjectivesNarrow the scope of a noun. They include possessives (my, their) and words that show number (eight, several)
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