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افغانستان Afghanistan

By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on

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Nadir Shah Assassinated1747Persian ruler Nadir Shah is assassinated at Khabushan.
Durrani Elected1747Ahmed Khan was elected shah, more or less democratically, by a tribal council assembly of Pashtun men. Taking the name Ahmed Shah Durrani, he founded what is known today as Afghanistan and established the Durrani dynasty that was to last, with one brief interruption, until the communist revolution of 1978. Consolidates chieftainships, petty principalities, and fragmented provinces into one country. His rule extended from Mashad in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxys) river in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. Except for nine months in 1929, all of Afghanistan's rulers until the 1978 coup were from Durrani's Pashtun tribal confederation, and all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan after 1818.
1st Anglo-Afghan War1839-1842Resulted in the destruction of a British army and is remembered today as an example of the ferocity of Afghan resistance to foreign rule.
2nd Anglo-Afghan War1878-1880Sparked by Amir Sher Ali's refusal to accept a British mission in Kabul. This conflict brought Amir Abdur Rahman to the Afghan throne. During his reign from 1880 - 1901, the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan. The British retained effective control of Kabul's foreign affairs
Amir Abdur Rahman Khan1880 - 1901
Habibullah1901 - 1919
British Rule Ends1919 08The war-weary British relinquished their control over Afghan foreign affairs by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August 1919. In commemoration of this event, Afghans celebrate August 19 as their Independence Day.
Habibullah Assasinated1919Habibullah assassinated, possibly by family members opposed to British influence. His third son, Amanullah, regained control of Afghanistan's foreign policy after launching the Third Anglo-Afghan war with an attack on India in the same year.
Kingdom1929 - 1933King Mohammed Nadir Shah
Avuncular Era1933 - 1954
Daoud's Republic1953 - 1963
Coup d'etat1973 07 17While King Zahir Shah was overseas, his cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan (with help from Kabuli communist parties) proclaimed a new Republic of Afghanistan and took the role of head of state.
Islamist Arrests1974Ghulam Muhammad Niyazi (dean of Sharia faculty and leading proponent of الإخوان The Brotherhood) and two hundred of his associates are arrested. گلبدين حكمتيار Gulbuddin Hikmetyar, Burhanuddin Rabbani and most other Islamist leaders fled to Peshawar.
The US cleverly paid the Chinese to make Soviet-style weapons for the mujahidin, so that catured weapons would not give away American involvement in the dirty Afghan war. Mujahidin commander Abdul Haq once complained of the waste of having to fire off a lot of SAM-7 missiles to get the hang of how they worked, because they'd come with instruction manuals written in Chinese.

Anarchy + Anomie


Origins of Taliban
Rise of Taliban1994 - 1996
Islamic Emirate1996 - 2001

US-Led NATO Occupation

NATO Invasion2001


include 'glossary.php';

print $glossaryheaderbig;

print "Major Modern Figures";

print $abdulrashiddostum;
print $abdurrahmankhan;
print $ahmedshahdurrani;
print $ahmedshahmasud;
print $akbarkhan;
print $alexanderburnes;
print $alexanderthegreat;
print $asoka;
print $babur;
print $bessus;
print $daudkhan;
print $dariusiii;
print $dostmohammed;
print $hikmetyar;
print $ismailkhan;
print $mountstuartelphinstone;
print $williamelphinstone;

print "Geography and Places";

print $arachosia;
print $areia;
print $bactria;
print $balahissar;

print "Culture and Ethnicities";

print $burqa;
print $durrani;
print $feringhee;
print $gandhara;
print $ghazi;
print $ghazni;
print $ghilzai;
print $hazarajat;
print $pashtunwali;
print $perghanotomban;
print $shalwarkameez;

print $glossaryfooter;


Barkley attributed the turnaround to word-of-mouth from the first few customers. Shepard joked that Afghans are "solar-powered," and don't like venturing out into the chilly mornings. Inside one tent, Staff Sgt. Dwaine Hood caught a farmer seeming to steal a handful of medicine from one of the vets' stations. Hood berated the cowering man. "It's important for your people to see the government work!" he yelled, as a translator calmly recited his words in Dari.

Afghani terrain

باميان Bamiyan

Even with a good road, news of violence in other parts of Afghanistan may scare visitors away from Bamiyan, where international forces have yet to fire a bullet in eight years. CS Monitor 2009/06/14

بند امير Band-e Amir

Located in the safest part of افغانستان Afghanistan, the Baba mountains.

Exactly how many tourists visit Band-e-Amir is unknown, with the governor of Bamiyan Province saying 500 last year and aid agencies saying it was thousands. The discrepancy might relate to who is counted as a tourist – many Afghans visit the site, as well as expatriates like Dennis and Lukas, who work in Kabul. The one guesthouse in the park hosts 500 to 800 guests each year. (CS Monitor 2009/06/14)

On June 18 [2009], Band-e-Amir will be officially inaugurated as Afghanistan's first national park. International organizations, the Afghan government, and local villagers are all hoping that the designation will inspire more tourists to come to this war-ravaged nation. (CS Monitor 2009/06/14)