By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
|Nadir Shah Assassinated||1747||Persian ruler Nadir Shah is assassinated at Khabushan.|
|Durrani Elected||1747||Ahmed Khan was elected shah, more or less democratically, by a tribal council assembly of Pashtun men. Taking the name Ahmed Shah Durrani, he founded what is known today as Afghanistan and established the Durrani dynasty that was to last, with one brief interruption, until the communist revolution of 1978. Consolidates chieftainships, petty principalities, and fragmented provinces into one country. His rule extended from Mashad in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxys) river in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. Except for nine months in 1929, all of Afghanistan's rulers until the 1978 coup were from Durrani's Pashtun tribal confederation, and all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan after 1818.|
|1st Anglo-Afghan War||1839-1842||Resulted in the destruction of a British army and is remembered today as an example of the ferocity of Afghan resistance to foreign rule.|
|2nd Anglo-Afghan War||1878-1880||Sparked by Amir Sher Ali's refusal to accept a British mission in Kabul. This conflict brought Amir Abdur Rahman to the Afghan throne. During his reign from 1880 - 1901, the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan. The British retained effective control of Kabul's foreign affairs|
|Amir Abdur Rahman Khan||1880 - 1901|
|Habibullah||1901 - 1919|
|British Rule Ends||1919 08||The war-weary British relinquished their control over Afghan foreign affairs by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August 1919. In commemoration of this event, Afghans celebrate August 19 as their Independence Day.|
|Habibullah Assasinated||1919||Habibullah assassinated, possibly by family members opposed to British influence. His third son, Amanullah, regained control of Afghanistan's foreign policy after launching the Third Anglo-Afghan war with an attack on India in the same year.|
|Kingdom||1929 - 1933||King Mohammed Nadir Shah|
|Avuncular Era||1933 - 1954|
|Daoud's Republic||1953 - 1963|
|Coup d'etat||1973 07 17||While King Zahir Shah was overseas, his cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan (with help from Kabuli communist parties) proclaimed a new Republic of Afghanistan and took the role of head of state.|
|Islamist Arrests||1974||Ghulam Muhammad Niyazi (dean of Sharia faculty and leading proponent of الإخوان The Brotherhood) and two hundred of his associates are arrested. گلبدين حكمتيار Gulbuddin Hikmetyar, Burhanuddin Rabbani and most other Islamist leaders fled to Peshawar.|
|The US cleverly paid the Chinese to make Soviet-style weapons for the mujahidin, so that catured weapons would not give away American involvement in the dirty Afghan war. Mujahidin commander Abdul Haq once complained of the waste of having to fire off a lot of SAM-7 missiles to get the hang of how they worked, because they'd come with instruction manuals written in Chinese.|
|Origins of Taliban|
|Rise of Taliban||1994 - 1996|
|Islamic Emirate||1996 - 2001|
US-Led NATO Occupation
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Barkley attributed the turnaround to word-of-mouth from the first few customers. Shepard joked that Afghans are "solar-powered," and don't like venturing out into the chilly mornings. Inside one tent, Staff Sgt. Dwaine Hood caught a farmer seeming to steal a handful of medicine from one of the vets' stations. Hood berated the cowering man. "It's important for your people to see the government work!" he yelled, as a translator calmly recited his words in Dari.
|بند امير Band-e Amir|
Located in the safest part of افغانستان Afghanistan, the Baba mountains.