The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates specific genetic sequences (DNA or RNA, in either plus- or minus-sense) so that vast quantities of a certain DNA segment can be quickly produced (amplification). PCR relies upon a few basic steps:
- Obtain genetic material for PCR.
- Add oligonucleotide primers complementary to the sequence you wish to amplify.
- Single dNTPs are added to provide base pairs for newly synthesized DNA or RNA.
- Heat-stable polymerases are added to conduct the replication.
- The reaction is repeatedly heated and cooled, splitting and annealing DNA for the replication assembly to bind an conduct the replication.