By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
Mitosis is a eukaryotic process whereby a cell divides to produce two daughter cells identical to itself. Mitosis is the nuclear division that results in two daughter nuclei whose genetic material is identical with that of the original nucleus. In multicellular organisms, somatic cells undergo mitosis while germ cells undergo meiosis.
The mitotic phase is a relatively short action-packed period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for division. Interphase is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and then finally enters mitosis.
|Meiosis||Meiosis is the nuclear division by which a reproductive cell with two equivalent chromosome sets divides twice to produce four meiotic products, each of which has only one set of chromosomes.|
|Endodyogeny||Whereby two daughter cells form inside the mother cell and eventually take it over.|
|Binary Fission||Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and divide by binary fission.|