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By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on

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Apulia900-200 BCApulia is the part of Italy closest to Greece, and Mycenaean Greeks began trading there ~1600 BC. Mycenaean contact ended ~1100 BC, ending most pottery manufacture in Italy. Manufacture was maintained in Italy only in Apulia, until Greek settlers arrived in ~760 BC and re-introduced the wheel and painting techniques to other parts of Italy. Apulia had a strong local culture, and traditional shapes and lively decoration were retained despite local variations and the adoption of some Greek features. Local pots were widely exported to other parts of Italy and to Illyria across the Adriatic.
Arms and Armor700-100 BC

Native Italian armor often exhibits regional variation. From the 7th century onward, tools and weapons were predominantly of iron; despite its greater hardness than bronze, it rusts awfully and thus rarely survived to the present day.

Greek-style armor and fighting tactics were widely adopted from the 7th century BC onward, with both the Corinthian and Attic helmets proving popular. Corinthian helmets were modified to a less protective form, worn pushed back like a cap.

This modified Corinthian helmet style was particularly plentiful in Apulia, and also was used by the Etruscans and Romans from the 6th century BC until the 1st century BC. From the 4th century BC until the 1st century BC, the mots common helmet form was the Montefortino type brought from Central Europe by invading Gauls.

Non-Etruscans900-100 BCItaly was inhabited by many different peoples, each with distinct languages, religions and cultures. They spoke Indo-European languages and their written alphabets were largely developed from the Etruscan script which came into use ~700 BC. Most early Italian peoples were tribal. Foreign influence was evidence in areas adjacent to Etruria, Phoenicia, Greece and Etruscan colonies.