Once Assyria’s control over southern Mesopotamia had slipped following the death of Assurbanipal, a local official, Nabopolassar, took the throne of Babylon in 626, and by 616 he united the entire area under his rule. He founded a dynasty, called the Neo-Babylonian dynasty.
604 - 562 BC
Soon after Babylonia's defeat of Assyria, Nebuchadnezzar II led Babylonian forces (first as crown prince, then as king) to fight the Egyptians and in 605 BC he won a serious victory against the Egyptians at Carchemish. Soon afterwards, Nabopolassar died and he rushed back to Babylon to ascend the throne. Thereafter he returned west and campaigned extensively in the Levant, perhaps as a preface to invading Egypt. However, Nebuchadnezzar II failed to assert longlasting hegemony there and by 567 BC a border was agreed upon.