By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
- 1914 - 1920, Britain invades Mesopotamia
- 1920 - 1932, British Mandate of Mesopotamia
- 1932 - 1958, Kingdom of Iraq
- 1958 - 1968: End of Monarchy, Kurdish War & Ba'athist Coup
- 1991 - 2003: Desert Storm, Rapparin and Genocide
- 2003 - Present: US Occupation, Salafi Terrorism and Democracy
- Iraqis in America
- العراقي Iraqi forces
- العراقي Iraqi peoples
Military Coup d'État
Ba'thist military coup d'état organized by al-Bakr ousts non-Ba'thist allies.
Iraq-USSR Oil Agreement
Major agreement between Iraq and USSR on Soviet assistance in exploiting Iraqi oil fields.
Saddam Husain Appears
Saddam Husain appointed to ruling Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) and becomes its vice-chairman.
Manifesto on Kurdistan grants limited autonomy. Barzani calls cease-fire.
Kirkuk has an important oil refinery and the was thus left out of the definition of Kurdish areas. Large numbers of Kirkuki Kurds were forced out of their jobs and homes and resettled elsewhere. Arabs were then made to move to Kirkuk form the south as part of the government's Arabisation program.
Land reform measures.
New provisional constitution recognizes Kurdish nationalism.
Iraq and Iran Chill
Relations between Iraq and Iran are severed.
Iraq and USSR sign fifteen-year Iraq-USSR Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation.
The regulations of the 1972 Convention of Geneva requesting all countries to cease production, completion and conservation of all kinds of chemical and biological weapons and to demolish them and the UN 37/98 resolution emphasizing the necessity of observing the articles and contents of the 1925 protocol and the 1972 Convention of Geneva have also been accepted by the UN member countries including Iraq.
Iraq Petroleum Corporation nationalized.
North Kurdistan Unrest
Fighting erupts in northern Kurdistan.
Kazzar leads a failed coup attempt. President al-Bakr and Vice-President Hussein reinforce their hold on the state.
Iraq in War Against Israel
Iraq limitedly participates in war with Israel.
Kurd Autonomy Law
Autonomy Law for Kurdish areas is announced. Disagreement continues between government and KDP. Fighting is widespread throughout Kurdistan.
Algiers Agreement between Saddam Hussein and shah of Iran ends Iranian assistance to KDP, leading to collapse of the Kurdish revolt.
Kurd Party Split
Kurdistan Democratic Party Provisional Leadership (KDP-PL) was led by Masoud Barzani. Popular Union of Kurdistan (PUK) was led by Jalal Talabani.
30,000 process from Najaf to Karbala as an anti-government protest known as the Safar Intifada.
Ayatolla Khomaini expelled from Iraq.
Baghdad Summit following Camp David accords marks Iraqi bid for Arab leadership.
Shi'I Islamist Uprising
Success of Iranian revolution encourages Shi'i Islamist organizations to launch more active campaigns in Iraq.
President al-Bakr Resigns
President al-Bakr resigns.
President Saddam Hussein
Vice-President Saddam Hussein immediately sworn in as President. Purge of Hussein's party, the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), and also of Ba'th Party.
|KDP Congress elects Masoud Barzani as chairman and calls fro continuing armed struggle inside Iraq.|
|Mujama'aat for Kurds|
Mujama'aat (collective towns) are built by the Iraqi government to house Kurds whose rural communities were destroyed by scorched-earth policies of the 1970s and 1980s. They were generally built close to the main roads for ease of surveillance by the camp. The Barzani clan was transferred to two mujama'aat outside Qushtapa, named by the Iraqis al-Qadissiya (after the historic battle where Arabs defeated Persians and converted them to Islam) and al-Quds (the Arabic name for Jerusalem, meaning the Holy).
|Law for election of National Assembly in Iraq.|
Ayatollah al-Sadr and his sister Bint al-Huda executed in Baghdad. Over 40,000 Shi'a expelled to Iran.
Iraq Invades Iran
Iraqi forces invade Iran.
Iran's counteroffensive recaptures most of its territory.
9th Regional Congress of Ba'th Party reasserts Saddam Hussein's absolute control.
Former President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr dies suddenly.
Iran Seized Haj Omran
KDP units help Iran seize the border town of Haj Omran in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Iraq Slaughters Barzani
In retaliation for helping the Iranians, Iraq sent troops to Qushtapa's two mujama'aat (where the Barzani clan had been relocated) to seize the men and boys and load them into trucks at gunpoint. The collective towns of Qushtapa were left inhabited almost exclusively by widows and their children.
Escalation of Gulf Wars
Wars escalate in the waters of the Gulf.
Iraq re-establishes diplomatic relations with the United States.
Iran Captures al-Faw
Iran captures the al-Faw pensinsula.
Anti-KDP & -PUK Action
Iraqi government campaigns against KDP and PUK in Kurdistan.
PUK Op in Jafati
14-16 04 1987
PUK peshmerga seized over 100 government posts in the Jafati valley. Most of the peshmerga from Balisan were involved in this operation. In reprisal the Balisan Valley was attacked on 17 04 1987
Twenty four villages of Iraq's Kurdistan were targeted by chemical bombardment. These villages were chemically bombarded twice in less than 48 hours. Saber Ahmad Khoshnam, one of the inhabitants of the bombarded villages in Loqmanodulleh Hospital in Tehran on 28th of April 1987, told reporters that the Iraqi warplanes dropped 18 chemical bombs at Sheikh Dassan, Kani Bard, Pasian and Tuteman villages. He said that more than one hundred people of these villages were wounded and that he had witnessed that an entire family in Parsian village lost their sight. In the course of the chemical bombardment of the late April 1987 of the Iraqi villages, more than 130 innocent villagers were martyred and about five hundred of them were wounded.
The Iraqi regime has deployed chemical weapons against its own people while the UN general secretary's representatives during their visits to Iran in two occasions, prepared detailed reports from the deployment of the chemical weapons against the civilian people and submitted them to the United Nations in reports number S/1 6433 and S/18852 and after the submission of these reports by the general secretary to the Security Council, eventually this council, too, joined those individuals and organizations who condemned Iraq's deployment of chemical weapons. But despite all these condemnations, Baghdad's rulers have continued their crimes.
Balisan Valley Attacked
17 04 1987
The Balisan Valley was attacked with chemicals, including the village of Sheikh Wisan, in reprisal for the PUK operations in days prior in Jafati. The chemicals had actually landed up the slope from Sheikh Wasan, but the gas was so heavy that it drifted along. The shells perhaps still remain, their thin green metal hulls surely now rusted beyond immediate recognition.
After the bombing, 2,000 Iraqi soldiers were brought in to comb the valley for peshmerga.
Kurdistan Front formed to unite main Kurdish parties.
The al-Anfal begins in Kurdistan, including the notorious chemical attacks in Halabja that came to symbolize the senseless and unbridled aggression of the al-Anfal.
Halabja was a town of 70,000 people. Chemical bombardments on Halabja began before sunrise on the 18th of March; on this third day of attacks, Halabja was bombarded more than twenty times by the Iraqi regime's warplanes with chemical and cluster bombs. According to the findings of Iranian physicians, the mustard, nerve and cyanide gases have been used against civilians in Halabja and its surroundings. The chemicals used included mustard gas and the nerve agents sarin, tabun, and VX. At least 5,000 people died immediately as a result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that up to 12,000 people in all died during the course of the three days of attack. Post-mortem examination of the bodies of the chemical bombardment of Halabja, has proved that the suffocation of the most of the martyrs has been due to the inhalation of cyanide gas. Along with Halabja, Khormal, Dojaileh and their surrounding villages were also chemically bombarded frequently but the center of the catastrophe was Halabja. (KDP's A Glance at the Town on the Position of Halabja, link)
Iran accepts UN cease-fire resolution. War with Iraq ends.
Iraq invades and annexes Kuwait. UN imposes total trade embargo and sanctions on Iraq.
Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq: New Edition.
Marr, Phoebe. The Modern History of Iraq, 2nd Edition. 2004. Westview Press. Boulder, Colorado.
Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq: New Edition.