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普通话二 Mandarin 2Comments

普通话二 Mandarin 2

The curriculum is below.
Ability

音樂會音乐会

Electronics
正在 zhèngzài
  • 正在
  • 的時候的时候
一邊一边 yībiān
  • 一邊一边
就 jiù
如果 rúguǒ, 的話的话 dehuà
衣服 Clothing
色 Color
除了 chúle… 以外 yǐwài…
一樣一样 yīyàng
雖然虽然 suīrán
  • 雖然虽然
但是 dànshì

Often used along with 雖然虽然 when forming sentences.

  • 但是
商店 Stores
  • 商店
  • 東西东西
  • 收貨員收货员
  • 顧人顾人
  • 樣子样子
  • 不用
  • 賣完卖完
  • 便宜
Money
  • 一共
  • 多少
  • 付錢 付钱
  • 刷卡
  • 信用卡
不過不过
旅行 Travel
Places Learn two more place names.
季節季节 Seasons
先 … 再
或者 huòzhě
  • 或者
  • 還是还是
hái
Topic-comment
天氣天气 weather
别 bié
不但 bùdàn … 而且 érqiě …
比 bǐ
又 yòu
Food and drink
  • 餃子饺子
  • 家常
  • 豆腐
  • 酸辣湯酸辣汤
  • 味精
  • 白菜
  • 青菜
  • 饿
飯館饭馆 Restaurant
  • 飯館(兒)饭馆(儿)
  • 服務員服务员
  • 服務服务
  • 桌子
  • 点菜
  • 點菜点菜
  • 上菜
  • 位子
gāng
剛才刚才 gāngcái gangcaizaizher (he was just here a little while ago) gangcai, gang can also be used as ganggang
些 xiē
gòu
好像 hǎoxiàng
Bu = constant; vs Mei = past tense with a verb. Mei mai / mei you mai zhanqian = make money Wo hen xihuanzhegexuexiao hui hen leng hui xiaxue zenmezhemeduo? (why much many?) jiwei = how many seats? Si (four) sounds like si(dipping) which is death so it is considered bad luck to say wo de qian bu guo (My money is not sufficient = I do not have enough money yigejiaozi = one order of dumpling, not just one dumpling 要是 = if
Regulative verb ending Xiecuo Xiedui cuo = (n) mistake (adj) wrong
Yangzi river
Campus
  • 教室
  • 宿舍
  • 中心
  • 圖書館图书馆
  • 書店书店
Communication


shàng
(v) to go (slang)

聽說 听说 tīngshuō (v) to be told; to hear of
運動 运动 yùndòng (n) sports
Directions
旁邊 旁边 pángbiān (n) side
jìn (adj) near
yuǎn (adj) far
lí (prep) away-from
中間 中间 zhōngjiān (n) middle
裏邊 里边 lǐbian (n) inside
Orientation
Measure words

New measure words have been introduced throughout this curriculum. Review them below.

Additional vocabulary

怎麼了=wgat gappenedd?
會 mv will
公園 n park
滑冰 vo to ice skate
剛才 r just now a momrbt ago
更 adv even mire
辧 v to handle, to fo
碟 n dusc; dmall plate, dush, sayce
一頂一顶 (conj) another


活動 活动 huódòng (n) activity
地方 dìfāng (n) place
洗澡 xǐzǎo (v-o) to shower/bathe
piān m.w. for essays, articles, etc
課文 课文 kèwén (n) lesson; section of a text
日記 日记 rìjì (n) diary
lèi (adj) tired
起床 起床 qǐchuáng (v-o) to get up

Note that 起床 is a verb-object, so when referring to the past tense you would say 起了床.

chuáng (n) bed
希望 xīwàng (v) to hope; (n) hope
xiào (v) to laugh at; to laugh; to smile
zhù (v) to wish (well)
發音 发音 fāyīn (n) pronunciation
xīn (adj) new
ràng (v) to allow somebody; to cause somebody
不好意思 bùhǎoyìsi to feel embarrassed
měi (pr) every; each
城市 chéngshì (n) city
特別 tèbié (adv) especially
緊張 紧张 jǐnzhāng (adj) nervous; anxious
自己 zìjǐ (pr) oneself
快樂 快乐 kuàilè (adj) happy
新年 xīnnián (n) new year
那麼 那么 nàme (pr) indicating degree; so, such
好玩兒 好玩儿 hǎowár (adj) fun, amusing, interesting
yuē (v) to make an appointment
出去 chūqù (vc) to go out
非常 fēicháng (adv) very, extremely, exceedingly
糟糕 zāogāo (adj) in a terrible mess; so terrible
面試 面试 miànshì (v) to interview (n) interview
回去 huíqù (vc) to go back; to return
舒服 shūfú (adj) comfortable

Time words

以前 yǐqián (t) before
已經 已经 yǐjīng (adv) already
最近 zuìjìn (t) recently
  • zuì (adv) most, -est
  • jìn (adj) close, near
後來 后来 hòulái (t) later

Ability

huì (av) can; know how to
音樂會 音乐会 yīnyuèhuì (n) concert
néng (av) can; able to; permitted
yòng (v) to use

語法语法 Grammar

(正)在 (zhèng)zài

In spoken and written form, 正 is optional and can be ommitted.

Event + deshihou + zhengzai + Another event
Two events happening at the same time.

Also, 正 is used for counting because it has exactly five strokes.

Similar to English speakers drawing four line and crossing them with the fifth, 正 is used the same way.

一邊 一边 yībiān (adv) simultaneously
jiù then

When nothing happens between two consecutive events, then 就 is appropriate. An excellent writeup: link

如果… 的話, … 如果… 的话, … rúguǒ… dehuà, …
如果 condition 的話的话 (就) result

The 就 is optional, and in fact 的話 and 的话 can be as well if the meaning is clear from the sentence.

除了… 以外… chúle... yǐwài... (conj)

Note that 除了 does not exactly mean because, as it is only for events that already happened.

一樣 一样 yīyàng same; alike
Using 一樣一样 shows that two entities are just as much of a certain quality or adjective; they are equally expensive, cheap, etc.

一樣一样 does not indicate that one entity or the other is to a greater or lesser degree; it indicates that they are equally so. Adding 不 before 一樣一样 means that they are unequally so, but does not clarify which one is more or less.

A (noun) aspect (noun) 跟/和 B (noun) 一樣一样
這雙鞋这双鞋 大小 那雙那双 一樣一样
A (noun) 跟/和 B (noun) 一樣一样 adjective
Zhegejiaoshi 跟/和 nagejiaoshi buyiyang da
Zhegejiaoshi 跟/和 nagejiaoshi buyiyang da

Zhegejiaoshi 跟/和 nagejiaoshi buyiyang da (This classroom and that classroom are the same size.) Zhegejiaoshi 跟/和 nagejiaoshi buyiyang da (This classroom and that classroom are not the same size.)

雖然 虽然 suīrán (conj) although
但是 dànshì (conj) but
tǐng very; rather
不過 不过 bùguò (conj) however; but
zài (adv) again
或者 huòzhě (conj) or
或者 vs 還是还是.
或者 and 還是还是 both mean or but they are used differently, depending on whether the sentence is a question or a statement. 還是还是 is used for questions, while 或者 is for statements.
hái (conj) or; more
bié
不但... 而且... bùdàn... érqiě... (conj) not only... but also...

When using 不但 and 而且, the 而且 is mandatory but 不但 is optional.

bǐ (prep) (v) to compare
The basic pattern for 比 contrasts one entity to another.
ABadjective
There are two ways to modify this pattern: adding an adverb before the adjective, or a modifying expression after the adjective.

You can place 更 or before the adjective; this simply reiterates that A is more than B. Alternatively, you can use a modifying expression after the adjective: use either 的多 or 多了 to indicate much more, or 一點兒一点儿 to indicate a little more.

A B adjective
A B adjective
A B adjective 一點兒一点儿
A B adjective 一點兒一点儿
A B adjective 的多
A B adjective 多了
比 is not the same as 一樣一样 yīyàng.

一樣一样 yīyàng does not indicate which entity is more or less than the other: 一樣一样 yīyàng only states that A is equal or unequal to B in a particular aspect. On the other hand, 比 indicates that A is more than B.

yòu (adv) again
gāng (adv) just
剛才刚才 gāngcái (adv) just
xiē some (m-w for an indefinite amount)
gòu (adj) enough
好像 hǎoxiàng (v) to seem; to be like