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Peptide hormones

By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on

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Polypeptides are short chains of amino acids; most hormones are peptides. They are secreted by the pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, and kidneys.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as precursor molecules and processed by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi where they are stored in secretory granules. When needed, the granules are dumped into the bloodstream.

Different hormones can often be made from the same precursor molecule by cleaving it with a different enzyme.

Pituitary hormones
  • Oxytocin

  • Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH)

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)

  • Corticotropin (adrenocorticotropin, ACTH)

  • Lipotropin (LPH)

  • Thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone,TSH)

  • Growth hormone (GH, or somatotropin)

  • Prolactin (PRL)

  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Hypothalamic Hormones
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF or CRH)

  • Gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF or GnRH)

  • Prolactin-releasing factor (PRF

  • Prolactin-release inhibiting factor (PIF)

  • Growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)

  • Somatostatin

  • Thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRH or TRF)

Thyroid Hormones
  • Calcitonin

  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)

  • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Digestive Hormones
  • Gastrin

  • Secretin

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK)

  • Motilin

  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

  • Gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP)

  • Somatostain

Pancreatic Hormones
  • Insulin

  • Glucagon

  • Pancreatic polypeptide

  • Somatostatin

  • Peptide Hormones