Student Reader

Britain invades Mesopotamia

Outbreak of WarOctober 1914Outbreak of war between Ottoman Empire and Great Britain. Shortly thereafter, the British landed the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Forces (MEF) at the head of the Persian Gulf near Basra.
British Capture BasraNovember 1914By the end of November, Basra was in British hands. This was a pre-emptive move by the British government of India to protect British interests in the Persian Gulf.
British Take BasraApril 1915Defeat of Ottoman forces at Shu'aiba empowers the British to seize all of Basra in a realization of the value of territorial gain.
British Setback in KutNovember 1915British forces reach within fifty miles of Baghdad. However, a powerful Ottoman counter-attack drives these forces back to Kut where the forces are besieged for four months before eventually surrendering in April 1916.
Arab Revolt in HijazMid-1916Arab Revolt against Britain in the Hijaz. Led by Hashemite Sharif Husain of Mecca and his sons.
British Take BaghdadMarch 1917Baghdad falls to British forces.
Society of Islamic RevivalEarly 1918Shortly after the British establish control over Najaf and Karbala, the Society of Islamic Revival (Jam'iyya al-Nahda al-Islamiyya) was founded in Najaf, bringing together notables, clerics and tribal shaikhs. A British official was eventually assassinated, leading to swift reassertion of British hegemony.
British Capture KirkukMay 1918British capture of Kirkuk.
Kurdish Ally BritainMay 1918A meeting of Kurdish tribal leaders in Sulaimaniyya offered the rule of their country to Great Britain. British had already established contact with one of them, Shaikh Mahmud Barzinki.
British Take KirkukSeptember 1918British forces take Kirkuk and effectively destroy the Ottoman 6th Army.
Armistice of MudrosOctober 1918The Ottoman government pursues peace, leading to the Armistice of Mudros. The terms of the Armistice of Mudros were that Ottoman garrisons in Mesopotamia surrendered to the British.
British Capture MosulNovember 1918The British commander then went on to Mosul, demanding its surrender. The Ottoman governor protested that Mosul was not part of Mesopotamia, but nevertheless was forced to comply and Ottoman forces withdrew. This established the line of the Armistice of Mudros as the northern border of the Mosul province.
Shaikh Mahmud AscendsDecember 1918Shaikh Mahmud Barzinki was appointed governor of Lower Kurdistan, causing him to fall out with some other Kurdish chiefs. The British were harassed by Kurdish resistance, and upon realizing Shaikh Mahmud Barzinki's desire for greater control moved to restrain him.
British Occupy All of IraqEnd of 1918British occupation of the three provinces of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul.
Shaikh Mahmud QuashedMay 1919Shaikh Mahmud Barzinki defiantly announces an independent Kurdistan. This strengthened British officers' proclamations from Baghdad that direct rule was needed in Kurdistan. A British military expedition is dispatched. Shaikh Mahmud Barzinki is captured and British administration is re-established in Sulaimaniyya. Outbursts of revolt and defiance continue.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
Anglo-French DeclarationNovember 1918Promised self-government in the three provinces.
TCCD RegulationThe Tribal Civil and Criminal Disputes Regulation was based on the Government of India Act of the same name. It gave tribal shaikhs, designated by British authorities, the power to settle all disputes with an between members of their tribe. Also, it charged tribal shaikhs with collecting taxes on behalf of the government. The TCCD Regulation was encoded into Iraqi later in 1924. This was based on the premise that tribal hierarchies and units constituted the natural order of the society.
Arnold Wilson's PlebisciteEarly 1919Misleadingly labeling it a plebiscite, Arnold Wilson surveyed notables of the three provinces. Opinions were inconsistent regarding the shape and constitution of the state, but there was agreement outside the Kurdish areas that the state should comprise all three Ottoman provinces under an Arab government. Wilson greatly exaggerated the degree to which notables would acquiesce to continued British control.
Versailles Peace Conf1919The British prevented a delegation from going, leading to the formation of the Independence Guard. Like al-'Ahd al-'Iraqi, the Independence Guard called for an independent Iraq (now recognized as the three provinces of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul) under one of Sharif Husain's sons. The Independence Guard was composed of more civillians than military officers than did al-'Ahd al-'Iraqi.
French Occupy Syria1920The French came to occupy all of Syria via a Mandate by the League of Nations.
Al-'Ahd al-'Iraqi CongressMarch 1920Al-'Ahd al-'Iraqi held a congress in Damascus and declared the independence of Iraq under the kingship of Amir 'Abdallah, brother of Amir Faisal and one of the sons of Sharif Husain. Few recognized the authority of the congress and 'Abdallah himself was notably cool towards it. Regardless, this was a distinct shift of al-'Ahd's activities and a number of officers moved to Dair al-Zur in eastern Syria in hopes of establishing a base of operations.

Studies

Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq: New Edition.

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