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Nouns

Absolute state

The absolute state of a noun is the "dictionary state", for example just man or door.

ماڵ
home
mal

نان
bread
nan

جادە
street (informal)
jada

شەقام
street (formal)
shaqam

رۆژ
day / daytime
roj

شەو
night / nighttime
shaw (rhymes with now)

دەرگا
door
darga

تاکسی
taxi
taksi

سەیارە
car
sayaara

Possessive state

These suffixes are used to denote possession.
Case English Suffix Examples
First-person singular my -ەکەم کتێبەکەم (my book) / ماڵەکەم (my home)
Second-person singular your -ەکەت کتێبەکەت (your book) / ماڵەکەت (your home)
Third-person singular singular her / his / its -ەکای کتێبەکای (her / his / its book) / ماڵەکای (her / his / its home)
First-person plural our -ەکەمان کتێبەکەمان (our book) / ماڵەکەمان (our home)
Second-person plural you alls’ -ەکەتان کتێبەکەتان (your book) / ماڵەکەتان (your home)
Third-person plural their -ەکەیان کتێبەکەیان (their book) / ماڵەکەیان (their home)

Indefinite state

The indefinite (as, in a man or any/some men) is achieved by adding a suffix to the absolute noun.

The indefinite singular ending is -ێک after a consonant and -یەک after a vowel. The indefinite plural ending is -ان except for two cases: when the word already ends in ا, add -یان; and if a word ends in ە then replace the ە with ان.

پیاو pyaw (man) پیاوێک pyawek (a man) پیاوان pyawan (any/some men)
رۆژ roj (day) رۆژێک rojek (a day) رۆژان rojan (any/some days)
دەرگا darga (door) دەرگایەک dargayek (a door) دەرگایان dargayan (any/some doors)
نامە nama (letter) نامەیەک namayek (a letter) نەمان naman (any/some letters)
There are certain modifiers that always take an indefinite noun.
پیاو pyaw (man) چەند chand (a few) چەند پیاوێک chand pyawek (a few men)
رۆژ roj (day) هەموو hamuu (every) هەموو رۆژێک hamuu rojek (every day)
لاپەرە lapara (page) چ chi (what?) چ لاپەرەیەک chi laparayak (what page?)
لا la (direction) هەر har (each) har layak (each direction)
The -ی زۆر -i zor (a lot of) sentence patterns also uses an indefinite singular.
نان nan (bread) نانێک nanek (a bread) نانێکی زۆر (a lot of bread)
کورد kurd (Kurd) کوردێک kurdek (a Kurd) کوردێکی زۆر kurdek-i zor(a lot of Kurds)
پیاو pyaw (man) پیاوێک pyawek (a man) پیاوێکی زۆر pyawek-i zor (a lot of men)

Definite state

The definite singular is like adding the in English (the man, or the men).

The definite singular ending is –کە after consonants and the vowels و، ی، ێ, and -ەکە after the vowels ە، ا، and ۆ. The definite plural follows the same rule with -کان and -ەکان.

پیاو pyaw (man) پیاوەکە pyawaka (the man) پیاوەکان pyawakan (the men)
کتاوی ktawi (student) کتاویەکە ktawiaka (the student) کتاویەکان ktawiakan (the students)
دێ de (village) دێەکە de'aka (the village) دێەکان de'akan (the villages)
دەرگا darga (door) دەرگاکە dargaka (the door) دەرگاکان dargakan (the doors)
نامە nama (letter) نامەکە namaka (the letter) نامەکان namakan (the letters)

Review: definite and indefinite endings

--
no ending means absolute

-ێک
-ekindefinite singular

-یێک
-yekindefinite singular

-ان
-anindefinite plural

-یان
-yanindefinite plural

-کە
-kadefinite singular

-ەکە
-akadefinite singular

-کان
-kandefinite plural

-ەکان
-akandefinite plural

Demonstratives

The demonstrative nouns envelops the absolute singular or indefinite plural.

For a singular demonstrative (this or that) then use the absolute singular with the noun ending ە or (after ە or ا) use the noun ending یە. For a plural demonstrative (these or those) then use the indefinite plural with the noun ending ە.

ئەم
amthis / these

یەو
awthat / those

یەم ___-ە/یە
am ___-a/yaThis / these ___.

ئەو ___-ە/یە
aw ___-a/yaThat / those ___.

پیاو pyaw (man) ئەم پیاوە am pyawa (this man) ئەو پیاوە aw pyawa (that man) پیاوان pyawan (any/some men) ئەم پیاوانە am pyawana (these men) ئەو پیاوانە aw pyawana (those men)
کتاوی ktawi (student) ئەم کتاویە am ktawia (this student) یەو کتاویە aw ktawia (that student) کتاویان ktawian (any/some students) ئەم کتاویانە am ktawiana (these students) ئەو کتاویانە aw ktawiana (those students)
دەرگا
نامە
There are also demonstrative pronouns.

ئەمە
amathis

ئەمانە
amanathese

ئەوە
awathat

ئەوانە
awanathose