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عربي Arabic 1Comments

عربي Arabic 1

The table below summarizes what you will be expected to learn in Arabic, level 1.
TopicMaterial
Arabic script
the definite article, ال
the feminine article, ة
Names and titles
Demonyms
Kinship
Occupations

Pronouns

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
أَنا I
إنتَ إنتَ أَنتَ you (m)
إنتي إنتي أَنتِ you (f)
هُوَ he
هِيَ she
إنتو نِحنا نَحْنُ we
أنتُم y'all
هُمَّ هِنّ هُم they

Demonstratives

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
هذا

هذا البيت
this is the house.

"It" and "is"

There is no "is" in Arabic. A is/am/are B is just A B in Arabic, with B conjugated to match A.
There is no non-human pronoun "it" in Arabic. Instead, use هُوَ (he) and هِيَ (she) to refer to male or female nouns.
There is no non-human pronoun "they" in Arabic.

هو and هي are used to refer to non-human groups (including animals). The non-human things are referred to as a singular group. Only use هم and أنتم when referring to groups of people.

Verbs

Main verbs vs non-main verbs: the ب prefix.
المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
يِتْكَلَّم عَن يِحكي عَن يَتَكَلَّم عَن he speaks/talks (about)
لِيَّ لي! لي with (people)
عَندي لِيَّ عَندي إلي عِندي لي I have (things) I use (things) with (things)
بادرِس بِدرُس أَدرُس I study
ساكِن \ ساكنة ساكِن \ ساكنة أَسكُن I live
يَحفَظ يِحفَظ يَحفَظ he memorizes
ياكُل ياكُل يَأكُل he eats
فاكِر / فاكْرة ج: فاكْرين بِتذَكَّر أَتَذَكَّر I remember
اَسافِر (اسافِر (عَ (أُسافِر (إلى I travel (to)
يِسمَع يِسمَع (يَستَمِع (إلى he listens (to)
الفُصحى: لي الشامي: !لي المصري: لِيَّ
الفُصحى: عَندي الشامي: !عَندي المصري: عِندي

Nouns

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
الأَدب literature
الأُمم المتحدة United Nations
الناس people

Adjectives

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
وَحيد/ وَحيدة only/lonely

Prepositions

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
مِن from
مع with (m)
معه with him
معها with her
قَرِب near
عَن about (as in talk about)
كَمان كَمان أَيضاً also
ب في في in (space)
في في في in (time)
في and ب

In الفُصحى formal and المصري Egyptian Arabic, في means in with respect to space and time. In الشامي Levantine Arabic, في is used for time and ب is used spatially. (Egyptian Arabic uses ب to refer to time in بالنهار in the daytime and at night.) However, note that ب is not its own word but serves as a prefix.

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
بالنهار بالنهار في النهار in the daytime
بالليل بالليل في الليل at night
بالوالاية كليفورنيا في الوالاية كليفورنيا في الوالاية كليفورنيا in California

Adverbs

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
دايماً دايماً دائماً always
ايـضـاً also
فـعـلاً actually
جـداً very
كـثـيـراً much
جـيداً well/good
احـيانـاً sometimes

Conjugation

Verb and preposition conjugation

المصري الشامي الفُصحى
نِسكن نِسكن نَسكن نحن
تِسكنوا تِسكنوا تَسكنون أنتم
يِسكنوا يِسكنوا يَسكنون هم

Note that in الشامي and المصري verb conjugation, the ا alif is silent in the final وا suffix (when conjugating أنتم and هم).

Noun and adjective conjugation

كتابbook
كتابهُhis book
كتابهاher book

Question particles

Question particles go at the beginning of the sentence.

However, in the Egyptian dialect they can go at the end. In any case, when a question particle and a preposition are paired up, the preposition always comes first.

Questions usually have a rising intonation, while statements usually have a falling or flat intonation.

However, different regions and people might have different intonations and it is best to simply listen carefully and pick up on local customs. In some cases, as in English, simply saying a statement with a rising intonation is enough to turn it into a question.

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
ايه ... ؟ شو ... ؟ ما ... ؟ what ... ? (questions without a verb)
ما هذا ... ؟ what is this ... ?
ايه ... ؟ شو ... ؟ ماذا ... ؟ what ... ? (questions with a verb)
مين ... ؟ مين ... ؟ مَن ... ؟ who ... ?
مع مين ... ؟ مع مين ... ؟ مَعَ مَن ... ؟ with whom ... ?
أَيّ ... ؟ which ... ?
في أيّ ... ؟ بِأَيّ ... ؟ في أيّ ... ؟ in which ... ?
فين ... ؟ وين ... ؟ أينَ ... ؟ where ... ?
مِنين ... ؟ مِن وين ... ؟ مِن أينَ ... ؟ from where ... ?
إِزّايّ ... ؟ كيف ... ؟ كَيفَ ... ؟ how ... ?
... هل affix to beginning of sentence to make it yes or no query.
كام؟ كَم؟ how many?
ماذا

ماذا يشرب؟
what's he drinking?

Plurals

مُفرَد (singular) is abbreviated م جَمع (plural) is abbreviated ج

Because Arabic has so many irregular plurals, it is best to memorize the singular and plural at once when learning new words. Masculine plurals encompass both genders in all but the most formal written Arabic. For example, طلاب (students) could mean a male, female or mixed group of students.

The ين and ون suffix.

The ين and ون suffix is used in many different instances. There are fine grammatical rules dictating when ون or ين are used in formal Arabic, but in spoken Arabic ون is never used (ين takes its place).

Human masculine nouns Human masculine means, for example جار or موظف. In formal Arabic, plural masculine nouns end in either ون or ين. But in everyday Arabic, only ين is used.
Nouns and adjectives beginning with مُ or مَNouns and adjectives beginning with مُ or مَ always take the ين suffix in their plural form: examples include مَشغولين, متخصص, مبسوط, and مترجم. Exceptions to this rule are place names that incidentally begin with مَ or مُ, such as مكتب and مكتبة.
نسبة nisbaMost نسبة nisba adjectives take the ين form when conjugated in the plural. There are rare exceptions, including أمريكي (singular) and أمريكان (plural); أميركي (s) and أميركان (pl); and عربي (s) and عرب (pl).
Adjectives ending with انExamples include تعبان (s) and تعبين (pl).
An inanimate plural noun (whether masculine or feminine) is followed by a single feminine adjective.

Broken plurals

جمع مفرد
أَولاد وَلَد boy
أَصْحاب صاحِب owner
أَسْماء اِسم name
أَعْمال عَمَل job
أَشْغال شُغل job
أشياء شيء thing
أَخْبار خَبَر news
جمع مفرد
تُيوت بَيت house
دُروس دَرس lesson
صُفوف صَفّ classroom
فُصول فَصل class/year (students)
بُنوك بَنك bank
فُلوس فِلس money
جمع مفرد
أَبْواب باب door
أَخْوال خال maternal uncle
إِخْوة أَخ brother
طُلاّب طالِب student (m)
رِجال رَجُل man
جيران جار neighbor (m)

Dialogue

المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
,,, ألتَرجمة مِن ... !لى translation from ... to ,,,
فِعلاً really!, truly
صَحيح؟ really?!, for real?!
والله واللهِ really?!
نَفس the same (must go with a definite noun)
سَيَّد \ سَيَّدة friend
...مَشغول بِ ...مَشغولة بِ busy with ...
!مَبروك congratulations!
الله يبرِك فيك الله يِبارِك فيكي الله يبارِك فيك الله يبرِك لك بارَكَ الله فيك response to !مَبروك
في الحَقيقة بِالحَقيقة في الحَقيقة actually, in reality
جَواب ج) جَوابات) مَكتوب ج) مَكاتيب) رِسالة ج) رَسالئِل) letter
صورة ج) صِوَر) صورة ج) صُوَر) picture
باعرَف بَعرِف أَعرِف I know
Add لا or ما before a verb to make it negative.
المصري الشامي الفُصحى English
ما ما لا verb-negation particle

أو equals "or"

و أنا أيضاً and me also

مِن أينَ أنت؟
from where are you?
(مِن أينَ = from where)

أنا مِن لبنان

مَن أنت؟
who are you?

أنا محمد
I'm Mohammed.

كَم؟ كام؟ how many?