Assyrian king Shalmaneser III

By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on

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Battle of Qarqar

853 BC

Shalmanesser III faces a coalition of Levantine kingdoms at Qarqar. Ahab of Israel and Hadadezer of Damascus are members. Coalition succeeds (according to the Monolith inscription).

849-848 & 845 BC

Shalmaneser III faces a coalition of Levantine kingdoms (according to the bull inscription and Black Obelisk) and Hadadezer of Damascus is mentioned, uncertain if Jehoram of Israel participated.

841 BC

Damascus besieged and Jehu of Israel mentioned as paying tribute (according to the Black Obelisk).

838 BC

Shalmaneser II attacks four cities of Hazael of Damascus (according to the Black Obelisk).

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (858-824 BC) was found in a central palace erected by Shalmaneser III and Tiglath-Pileser IV Jastrow 1915, p 19.

The Black Obelisk depicts five scenes of tribute, like a miniature throne room. Each scene occupies four panels, wrapping around the obelisk, and is identified by a line of cuneiform script above it. The Black Obelisk provides the earliest depiction of an ancient Israelite.


Sua of Gilzanu

Northwest Iran.

Jehu of Bit Omri

Ancient Israel.


An unnamed rule of Musri likely heralds from Egypt.

Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi

Middle Euphrates, Syria and Iraq.

Qalparunda of Patin

Antakya region of Turkey.