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Extracellular Bacterial ProteiComments

Extracellular Bacterial Protein Toxins

NameOrganismActivity
Anthrax ToxinBacillus anthracisEdema Factor (EF) is an adenylatecyclase that causes increased levels in intracellular cyclic AMP in phagocytes and formation of ion-permeable pores in membranes (hemolysis).
Adenylate cyclase toxinBordetella pertussisActs locally to increase levels of cyclic AMP in phagocytes and formation of ion-permeable pores in membranes (hemolysis).
Cholera enterotoxin (ctx)VibriocholeraeADP ribosylation of G proteins stimulates adenlyate cyclase and increases cAMP in cells of the GI tract, causing secretion of water and electrolytes
E. coli LT toxinEscherichia coliSimilar to cholera toxin
E. coli ST toxinEscherichia coliStimulates guanylatecyclase and promotes secretion of water and electrolytes from intestinal epithelium
Shiga toxinShigelladysenteriaeEnzymatically cleaves rRNAresulting in inhibition of protein synthesis in susceptible cells
Perfringensentero toxinClostridium perfringensStimulates adenylate cyclase leading to increased cAMPin epithelial cells
Botulinum toxinClostridium botulinumZn++dependent protease that inhibits neurotransmission at neuromuscular synapses, resulting in flaccid paralysis
Tetanus toxinClostridium tetaniZn++dependent protease that inhibits neurotransmission at inhibitory synapses resulting in spastic paralysis
Diphtheria toxin (dtx)Corynebacterium diphtheriaeADP ribosylationof elongation factor 2 leads to inhibition of protein synthesis in target cells
Exotoxin APseudomonas aeruginosaInhibits protein synthesis; similar to diphtheria toxin
Anthrax toxin (LF)Bacillus anthracisLethal Factor (LF) is a Zn++dependent protease that induces cytokine release and is cytotoxicto cells by an unknown mechanism
Pertussistoxin (ptx)Bordetella pertussisADP ribosylationof G proteins blocks inhibition of adenylatecyclasein susceptible cells
Staphylococcus enterotoxins*Staphylococcus aureusMassive activation of the immune system, including lymphocytes and macrophages, leads to emesis
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin
(TSST-1)*
Staphylococcus aureusActs on the vascular system causing inflammation, fever and shock
Exfoliatintoxin*Staphylococcus aureusCleavage of epidermal cells (intradermal separation)