By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
Eukaryotic organelles are not present in prokaryotes. For example, prokaryotes lack a nucleus; eukaryotes have a nucleus.
|Nucleus||Contain & protect DNA. Site of transcription and partial assembly of ribosomes. Nucleus is where transcription, replication, and storage of DNA occurs.||2|
|Mitochondria||Produce ATP via Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria synthesize ATP. They have their own genome. According to the endosymbiotic theory of evolution, mitochondria were prokaryotes which were engulfed by a nucleated cell and a symbiosis was formed. Mitochondria are maternal, meaning that you get your mitochondria from your mother. They can therefore be used for maternal testing.||2|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||Endoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the nuclear membrane.|
|Golgi Apparatus||Modification & sorting of protein, some protein synthesis. Golgi apparatus is used for packaging. If a moiety needs to be transported within our outside the cell, the golgi apparatus will prepare it. There are three kinds of Golgi appartus: cis, medial, and trans.||1|
|Lysosomes||Contain acid hydrolases which digest various substances. Lysosomes process cell waste. They have an innate pH of 2 (relatively low) and degrade nonfunctional proteins.||1|
|Peroxisomes||Metabolize lipids & toxins using H2O2 (peroxide). Peroxisomes enzymatically produce and degrade H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide).||1|