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Eukaryotic organelles

By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on

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Eukaryotic organelles are not present in prokaryotes. For example, prokaryotes lack a nucleus; eukaryotes have a nucleus.

NucleusContain & protect DNA. Site of transcription and partial assembly of ribosomes. Nucleus is where transcription, replication, and storage of DNA occurs.2
MitochondriaProduce ATP via Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria synthesize ATP. They have their own genome. According to the endosymbiotic theory of evolution, mitochondria were prokaryotes which were engulfed by a nucleated cell and a symbiosis was formed. Mitochondria are maternal, meaning that you get your mitochondria from your mother. They can therefore be used for maternal testing.2
RibosomesSynthesize proteins0
Endoplasmic reticulumEndoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the nuclear membrane.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)Synthesis & modification of secretory, membrane-bound & organelle proteins. Rough ER, via ribosomes, produces glycoproteins and new membrane material.1
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)Detoxification & glycogen breakdown in liver; steroid synthesis in gonads. Smooth ER involved in lipid synthesis and CHO metabolism.1
Golgi ApparatusModification & sorting of protein, some protein synthesis. Golgi apparatus is used for packaging. If a moiety needs to be transported within our outside the cell, the golgi apparatus will prepare it. There are three kinds of Golgi appartus: cis, medial, and trans.1
LysosomesContain acid hydrolases which digest various substances. Lysosomes process cell waste. They have an innate pH of 2 (relatively low) and degrade nonfunctional proteins.1
PeroxisomesMetabolize lipids & toxins using H2O2 (peroxide). Peroxisomes enzymatically produce and degrade H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide).1