The English Civil War (aka Great Rebellion and English Revolution) refers to the period between 1640 and 1660 whereby Charles I's government collapsed and the ensuing civil wars and upheaval that led to the creation of a republic (Richardson 1998, p. 2). This controversial event involved a defeated king being denounced a traitor, put on trial in the name of his people, found guilty and publicly executed. Traditional hierarchies of the monarchy and the Anglican Church were systematically dismantled. Government and Church were restructured, the House of Lords was abolished, feudal tenures were ended, bishops were dispossessed and a standing army was formed (Richardson 1998, p. 3). The monarchy and Church were restored in 1660, but they never recovered (Richardson 1998, p. 3). Both sides in the war ransacked the past for historical precedents; not only did opposing parties and armies arise, but opposing theories of history (Richardson 1998, p. 4).