By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
مدحت پاشا Midhat Pasha instituted reforms which fell into three areas: administrative reorganization; settlement of the tribes; establishment of secular education.
مدحت پاشا Midhat Pasha introduced a new, centralized administrative system into the Iraqi provinces and extended it into the countryside, thus establishing the administrative framework of contemporary Iraq.
Settlement of Tribes
This was a regular system of land tenure with legally confirmed rights of governorship. Although urban speculators and merchants frequently bought up land at the expense of the peasants, the policy did enjoy some success. About one-fifth of the cultivable land of Iraq was given to those possessing new deeds of ownership.
مدحت پاشا Midhat Pasha laid the groundwork for a secular education system in Iraq by founding a technical school, a middle-level school (rushdiyya) and two secondary schools (i'dadi), one for the military and one for the civil service. Midhat's new schools were innovative: they were free and public, hence providing mobility for children of all classes and religious backgrounds; and they introduced a variety of subjects unavailable in religious schools. These subjects included Western languages, math and science.
The education movement begun by مدحت پاشا Midhat Pasha continued far beyond his tenure: by 1915 there were 160 schools. The three-year Law College was founded in 1908, providing the only higher education in the country. These schools represented the first and most important beachhead of modernization in الغراق Iraq.