Student Reader

Apicomplexans

OrganismHostDisease
PlasmodiumHumansMalaria
ToxoplasmaHumansToxoplasmosis
CryptosporidiumHumansCryptosporidiosis
EimeriaAnimalsCoccidiosis
TheileriaAnimalsTheileriosis
BabesiaAnimalsBabesiosis
NeosporaAnimalsNeosporosis
Apicomplexans Have Three Genomes
GenomeOverview
Mitochondrial6 kb tandem repeat; CO1, COII, Cyb; Fragmented rRNA
Nuclear11 chromosomes; 80 x 106 bp haploid; Map unit 150-300 kb
Apicoplast35 kb genome; Plastid like rRNA; rpoB, tufA, clpC
Apicomplexans Have Apically Specialized Organelles
OrganellePurposeOverview
Polar RingMicrotubules
Conoid
MicronemesInvasionCell attachment
RhoptriesInvasionVacuole formation
Dense GranulesInvasionModify vacuole
Secretory/Exocytic Organelles

The apical complex consists of four organelles: micronemes; rhoptries; dense granules; and conoid. The former three are needed for host cell invasion, whereby each organelle sequentially discharges its contents.

MicronemesMediate cell attachment (T0-15s).
RhoptriesInvolved in vacuole formation (T20-50s).
Dense GranulesModifies intracellular vacuole (T60-1200s).

apicomplexan organelles diagram

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ApicomplexansComments
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