Apicomplexans

By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
updated

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OrganismHostDisease

Plasmodium

Humans

Malaria

Toxoplasma

Humans

Toxoplasmosis

Cryptosporidium

Humans

Cryptosporidiosis

Eimeria

Animals

Coccidiosis

Theileria

Animals

Theileriosis

Babesia

Animals

Babesiosis

Neospora

Animals

Neosporosis

Apicomplexans Have Three Genomes
GenomeOverview

Mitochondrial

6 kb tandem repeat; CO1, COII, Cyb; Fragmented rRNA

Nuclear

11 chromosomes; 80 x 106 bp haploid; Map unit 150-300 kb

Apicoplast

35 kb genome; Plastid like rRNA; rpoB, tufA, clpC

Apicomplexans Have Apically Specialized Organelles
OrganellePurposeDescription

Polar Ring

Microtubules

Conoid

Micronemes

Invasion

Cell attachment

Rhoptries

Invasion

Vacuole formation

Dense Granules

Invasion

Modify vacuole

Secretory/Exocytic Organelles

The apical complex consists of four organelles: micronemes; rhoptries; dense granules; and conoid. The former three are needed for host cell invasion, whereby each organelle sequentially discharges its contents.

OrganelleDescription

Micronemes

Mediate cell attachment (T0-15s).

Rhoptries

Involved in vacuole formation (T20-50s).

Dense Granules

Modifies intracellular vacuole (T60-1200s).

apicomplexan organelles diagram