By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
With origins in the Middle Kingdom (~1,900-1,700 BC; early 2nd millennium), execration texts were Egyptian clay bowls or figurines of bound human captives that were inscribed in hieratic with the names and locations of enemies. In an attempt to magically curse Egypt's foes, powerful imprecations were recited and the objects were then broken. Princes as far north as Damascus have been named in execration texts. There are two groups of execration texts, all found in fortresses of the border of Nubia in Egypt: the Berlin Group, which are older and name 20 places; and the Brussels group, which are more recent and name 62 places.