By Levi Clancy for Student Reader on
At the March 1996 شورى shura the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established. Its central government,
ملا عمر Mullah Umar had the final say on all matters and increasingly centralized control. He originally acted in consultation with a number of shuras, though their importance diminished over time as that of the Arabs in القاعرة al-Qa'ida increased. The كابل Kabul shura, effectively a cabinet of ministers, was the Taliban's main interlocutor with the mainstream international community, which established its agencies in كابل Kabul. ملا عمر Mullah Umar also consulted a shura of علماء ulama and a military شورى shura. Rubin, p xv
The provincial government and the unprecedented penetration into the most local societal structures,
The IEA appointed provincial governors and administrators of districts, cities, towns, and precincts from the center, following the administrative divisions of former Afghan governments. As in most such governments, the administrators were invariably natives of areas other than the ones they governed and were regularly shuffled between areas. The طالبان Taliban established a nationwide judiciary with شريعة sharia courts at all levels, culminating in the Supreme Court of Sharia in Kabul. The Taliban also established a new security service, the Ministry of Enforcement of Virtue and Suppression of Vice ... named after a similar organization in Saudi Arabia. This ministry has been responsible for the enforcement of all decrees regarding moral behavior, including the decrees restricting women's employment and dress, enforcing men's beard length and mosque attendance, regulating activities of U.N. agencies and nongovernmental organizations, commanding destruction of "graven images," and requiring the labeling of religious minorities. Through the networks of local الملالي mullahs, the طالبان Taliban also penetrated into the village structure, perhaps more than previous Afghan governments, enabling the IEA to carry out such policies as the eradication of opium growing in 2000-2001. Rubin, p xv
ملا عمر Mullah Omar, طالبان Taliban Government and Taking كابل Kabul
1996 03 20 - 1996 04 04
طالبان شورى Taliban Shura meets on March 20 in كندهار Kandahar with about 1,000 invited علماء ulema and tribal elders to discuss policy. With the end of the طالبان شورى Taliban shura on April 04 was a call for Jihad against Rabbani, and ملا عمر Mullah Omar was made أمير المؤمنين Amir-ul-Momineen. The Taliban movement was thus transformed into a state structure, the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan IEA in whose name the Taliban captured كابل Kabul in September 1996.
1996 04 19
Senior US diplomats meet Afghan leaders in كابل Kabul and كندهار Kandahar.
1996 05 23
UN envoy Mestiri resigns for health reasons.
1996 06 26
گلبدين حكمتيار Gulbuddin Hikmetyar joins Rabbani and becomes Prime Minister. Taliban rocket كابل fifty two dead.
1996 07 11
German diplomat Norbert Holl appointed as UN envoy to افغانستان Afghanistan.
1996 09 04
Afghan women in كابل Kabul protest Taliban excesses.
1996 09 10
Taliban capture two districts in Nangarhar. Haji Qadeer flees to Pakistan, heavy fighting near Jalalabad.
1996 09 11
Taliban capture چلال آباد Jalalabad.
1996 09 25
Taliban capture Sarobi and Assadabad.
1996 09 26
From Sarobi, Taliban move to كابل Kabul in one night. Fightin outside city. كابل falls to طالبان.
1996 09 27
Taliban hang Najibullah. مسعود Masud retreats northwards. Mullah Omar declares amnesty and six-man council to run كابل Kabul headed by Mullah Mohammed Rabbani. Iran, Russia, India and Central Asian states condemn طالبان takeover. Pakistan sends delegation to كابل.
1996 10 01
Taliban tells مسعود Masud in the Panjshir to surrender or die. مسعود Masud blows up roads into Panjshir as طالبان advance north. طالبان reach Salang tunnel, stand-off with Dostum troops.
1996 10 04
CIS summit in Almaty warns Taliban to keep away from Central Asia.
1996 10 08
Heavy fighting as Taliban try to take Panjshir. Pakistan starts shuttle diplomacy.
1996 10 10
Dostum, مسعود Masud and Khalili meet at Khin Jan and form Supreme Council for the Defence of the Motherland. مسعود Masud attacks Bagram with 50 men and counter-attacks on the Salang highway.
1996 10 12
مسعود Masud takes Jabul Seraj.
1996 10 13
مسعود Masud recaptures Charikar. Fighting just ten miles from كابل Kabul, hundreds of casualties.
1996 10 18
Bagram falls to مسعود Masud as Taliban flee. Dostum armour arrives to help مسعود Masud.
1996 10 24
Mullah Omar says, "We will fight to the death and give our last drop of blood for طابل." مسعود Masud demands demilitarization of طابل .طالبان captures Baghdis province in heavy fighting with Dostum forces.
1996 10 31
Ismael Khan troops flown from Iran to Maimana to resist طالبان in west.
1997 01 01
طالبان retake Bagram and Charikar, major set-back for مسعود Masud.
1997 01 23
طالبان retake Gulbahar at mouth of Salang.
1997 02 02
Hazaras reinforce defenses of Bamiyan as طالبان advance via Ghorband valley. طالبان delegation visits USA.
1997 03 12
Assassination attempt on Mullah Abdul Razaq, Governor of Herat.
1997 05 19
General Malik Pahlawan rebels against Dostum, takes Faryab and says he has joined طالبان.
1997 05 20
Baghdis, Faryab, Sar-e-Pul provinces fall to Malik, heavy fighting. Malik hands over 700 prisoners and Ismael Khan to طالبان.
1997 05 24
طالبان sweep into مازارِ شريف Mazar-i-Sharif, impose Shari and close girls schools.
1997 05 26
Pakistan recognizes طالبان government. Talks in نازارِ شريف between طالبان and Malik break down. Fighting starts.
1997 05 28
طالبان driven out of مازار after 18-hour battle and 300 Taliban dead. Thousands captured. مسعود Masud counter-attacks in south.
1997 06 02
طالبان close ايران embassy in كابل. Thousands of Pakistani students join طالبان. Opposition forms new alliance in نازار.
1997 06 12
Some 3,000 طابان disarmed in Baghlan. مسعود Masud retakes Jabel Seraj. Rabbani meets Malik in مازار. Opposition forms United Islamic and National Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan.
1997 07 19
مسعود Masud takes Bagram and Charikar. طالبان flee leaving heavy weapons.
1997 07 21
Malik in ايران for talks.
1997 07 28
UN appoints Lakhdar Brahimi to prepare report on اقغانستان. Heavy fighting continues around كابل.
1997 08 07
ICRC says 6,800 people have been wounded in fighting over last three months. CARE suspends women's programs in كابل.
1997 08 12
Opposition meeting in مازار leads to Rabbani reappointed as President.
1997 08 15
Lakhdar Brahami arrives in Islamabad for extensive trip to region.
1997 08 19
Brahimi visits كذدهان .طالبان warn foreign press to report fairly or be thrown out.
1997 09 04
Mullah Rabbani meets King Fahd in Jeddah and says Saudis will help طالبان in health and education. طالبان accuse ايران, Russia and France of helping مسعود Masud.
1997 09 08
طالبان recapture مازار Mazar airport after renewed attack from طالبان force from Kunduz. Uzbeks divided between Malik and Dostum.
1997 09 09
Malik leaves مازار Mazar as home burnt down by Hizb-e-Wahadat, extensive looting in city as UN agencies leave. طالبان pushed back from airport.
1997 09 12
Dostum arrives back in مازار Mazar from Türkiye. طالبان kill 70 Hazara villagers in Qazil Abad. After three days of looting order in مازار Mazar, peace restored as طالبان pushed back and Dostum rallies troops.
1997 09 18
Heaving fighting again near مازار Mazar. طالبان say King Fahd will give full financial and political backing to them.
1997 09 23
طالبان bomb باميان Bamiyan heavily. Fighting ten miles form مازار,
1997 09 30
Three UN workers expelled from كندهار Kandahar by طالبان.
1997 10 01
Brahimi completes mision after visiting 13 countries. Heavy fighting continues around مازار.
1997 10 08
Dostum pushes طالبان back to Kunduz. كابل Kabul rejects transit trade agreement with Pakistan.
1997 10 21
Dostum seizes شبرغان as Malik flees to ايران.
1997 11 16
Dostum uncovers 2,000 dead bodies of طالبان in 30 mass graves near شبرغان, offers to return bodies to طالبان. Prisoner exchanges take place.
1997 11 18
US Secretary Madeleine Albright in Pakistan calls طالبان human rights 'despicable'
1997 11 26
UN Secretary General Koli Annan issues tough UN report on outside interference in افغانستان Afghanistan.
1997 12 17
UN Security Council condemns foreign arms supplies to Afghan factions, calls for cease-fire.
1998 01 06
President Rabbani visits ايران Iran, Pakistan and Tajikistan to gather support for regional conference on افغانستان Afghanistan under UN. طالبان Taliban accused of massacring 60 Uzbek civillians in Faryah province. Siege of باميان Bamiyan by طالبان worsens as food supplies run out.
1998 01 07
Kofi Annan appeals to طالبان to allow safe delivery of food to باميان Bamiyan.
1998 01 13
طالبان plane crashes near كوته Quetta, 80 soldiers killed. Shootout near كندهار Kandahar between طالبان Taliban and villagers resisting recruitment drive.
1998 01 27
250 prisoners freed on both sides for Eid.
1998 02 04
Earthquake in northeast افغانستان Afghanistan. Four thousand dead and 15,000 homeless. Relief agencies hampered by snow.
1998 02 20
Second earthquake hits.
1998 03 08
International Women's Day celebrated for Afghan women worldwide.
1998 03 14
Heavy fighting in مازار Mazar between Uzbeks and Hazaras.
1998 03 22
Brahimi returns for mediation between طالبان and opposition.
1998 04 01
طالبان name team to negotiate with opposition for Ulema Commission.
1998 04 17
US Envoy Bill Richardson visits كابل Kabul and مازار Mazar.
1998 04 26
Ulema Commission meets in Islamabad under UN auspices.
1998 05 04
Ulema Commission talks collapse.
1998 05 17
طالبان jets bomb Taloquan, 31 people killed, 100 injured. Heavy fighting around كابل and in north.
1998 05 30
Major earthquake hits northeast Afghanistan again, 5,000 dead.
1998 06 18
Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki in كندهار.
1998 06 30
طالبان demand that NGOs have to move to destroyed polytechnic building. NGOs refuse to move.
1998 07 03
Five-nation Central Asian summit in Алматы Almaty calls for end to Afghan war.
1998 07 09
UN plane rocketed at كابل Kabul airport. ملا عمر Mullah Omar issues edicts on scrapping TV, all Christians to be deported and former communists to be punished. Former communist Afghan Defense Minister murdered in Quetta.
1998 07 12
طالبان capture Maimana, take 800 Uzbek prisoners and capture 100 tanks.
1998 07 18
EU suspends all humanitarian aid to كابل because of unacceptable restrictions.
1998 07 20
NGOs pull out of كابل Kabul. EU closes its office.
1998 07 21
Two Afghan workers kidnapped and killed in Jalalabad.
1998 07 31
طالبان leaders visit madrassa of Dar-ul-Uloom Haqqania, Akora Khattak in Pakistan where they appeal for manpower. Five thousand Pakistanis leave to fight in افغانستان.
1998 08 01
طالبان take شبرغان. Dostum flees with troops to Hairatan on Uzbekistan border.
1998 08 07
Bomb blasts at US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, Osama bin Laden held responsible.
1998 08 08
طالبان capture مازار, kill 11 Iranian diplomats and a journalist. طالبان massacre thousands of Hazaras as thousands more flee مازار.
1998 08 10
Taloquan falls to طالبان.
1998 08 11
Russia warns Pakistan not to help طالبان. Central Asian states on high state of alert.
1998 08 12
Pul-e-Khumri and Hairatan fall to طالبان.
1998 08 18
Ayatollah Ali Khomeinei accuses US and Pakistan of using طالبان to plot against ايران Iran. ايران-طالبان tensions escalate. ملا عمر Mullah Omar says طالبان will protect بن لاذن Bin Laden.
1998 08 20
US launches 75 cruise missiles against Jalalabad and Khost camps run by بن لاذن Bin Laden. Twenty-one dead, 30 wounded in attack.
1998 08 21
طالبان Taliban condemn US attack and vow to protect بن لاذن Bin Laden. UN military officer killed in كابل Kabul. All foreigners evacuate افغانستان Afghanistan and also Peshawar and Quetta.
1998 08 26
New York Grand Jury hands over a sealed indictment against بن لاذن Bin Laden accusing him of terrorism.
1998 09 01
ايران Iran begins war-games on Afghan border with 70,000 troops.
1998 09 06
Danger of war grows as ايران Iran says it has right under international law to protect its citizens. USA advises restraint. طالبان Taliban again appeal to UN for recognition.
1998 09 10
طالبان Taliban say they have found the bodies of nine Iranian diplomats in مازار.
1998 09 13
باميان Bamiyan falls to طالبان Taliban after fighting. ملا عمر Mullah Omar asks troops to restrain themselves.
1998 09 20
Heavy rocketing of كابل Kabul by مسعود Masud, 66 killed and 215 wounded.
1998 09 22
Saudi Arabia expels طالبان Taliban envoy and expresses anger at طالبان refuses to hand over بن لاذن following Prince Turki's visit to كندهار Kandahar.
1998 09 27
طالبان have 30,000 troops on ايران Iran border to resist Iranian exercises.
1998 10 02
ايران Iran gunships and planes violate Herat airspace. Iranian army exercises begin with 200,000 troops.
1998 10 14
Lakhdar Brahimi holds talks with ملا عمر Mullah Omar in كندهار Kandahar in the first meeting of ملا عمر Mullah Omar with a foreign diplomat. طالبان Taliban agree to free all ايراني Irani prisoners.
1998 10 21
Feminist Majority Foundation in USA representing 129 women's organizations calls for increased economic and social pressure on Talibanطالبان. Mavis Leno, wife of Jay Leno, gives US $100,000 for campaign against the طالبان Taliban gender policy.
1998 10 23
مسعود Masud undertakes successful offensive in northeast and enters Kunduz province. طالبان arrest 60 of General Tanai's supporters in coup attempt in Jalalabad.
1998 10 25
طالبان ban use of landmines. مسعود Masud takes Imam Saheb on Tajikistan border.
1998 11 07
UN says طالبان responsible for killing 4,000 people earlier in مازار Mazar. ملا عمر Mullah Omar again rejects broad-based government.
1998 11 13
Mohammed Akbari, leader of faction of Hizb-e-Wahadat surrenders to طالبان in باميان Bamiyan.
1998 11 23
UNESCO chief Frederico Mayor urges world to stop human rights abuses by طالبان.
1998 12 01
طالبان shoots students outside Jalalabad University, four dead, six injured.
1998 12 09
UN General Assembly passes tough Resolution on افغانستان Afghanistan.
1998 12 29
UNICEF says education in افغانستان Afghanistan has collapsed.
1999 01 10
طالبان reject new Peace and National Unity Party formed in Peshawar and say only military solution acceptable. مسعود Masud offensive continues in north.
1999 01 12
Family of leading former Mujaheddin commander Abdul Haq gunned down in Peshawar.
1999 01 19
طالبان cut off limbs of six highway robbers in كابل and hang limbs on trees in the city.
1999 01 21
UN Security Council again calls for cease-fire after briefing by Lakhdar Brahimi.
1999 01 31
First Chinese delegation arrives in كابل to meet the طالبان.
1999 02 02
ايراني officials meet طالبان in دبي. US Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott meets with طالبان in Islamabad. He hands over letter to طالبان demanding they extradite بن لادن.
1999 02 09
طالبان Taliban reject US letter and say بن لادن Bin Laden will not be forced out but they will impose restrictions on him.
1999 02 11
Earthquake in Maiden Sahr in Logar kills 50 people and injures 200.
1999 02 13
بن لادن Bin laden goes underground. Taliban say they do not know his whereabouts. مسعود Masud visits Tehran for talks.
1999 02 15
Ten-year anniversary of Soviet withdrawal from افغانستان Afghanistan.
1999 02 21
UN mediator Lakhdar Brahimi arrives in Islamabad after meeting King Fahd in Riyadh.
1999 02 28
Anti-Taliban alliance say they wil form a leadership council and a 150-man parliament.
1999 03 03
Turkmenistan's Foreign Minister Sheikhmuradov meets with ملا غمر Mullah Omar for the first time in كندهار Kandahar.
1999 03 04
Hilary Clinton criticized Taliban gender policy.
1999 03 11
Talks between the Taliban and the opposition begin in Aşgabat under UN mediation.
1999 03 14
Talks end on hopeful note with both sides agreeing to release some prisoners; structure of government to be decided in later talks.
1999 03 24
Lakhdar Brahimi meets with ملا عمر Mullah Omar in كندهار Kandahar.
1999 03 30
Next round of Aşgabat talks stalled as both sides criticize one another.
1999 04 07
Russian Defence Minister Igor Sergeyev meets with مسعود Masud in Dushanbe as Russia announced it will build new military base in Tajikistan.
1999 04 10
ملا عمر Mullah Omar rules out further talks with opposition. Heavy fighting in and around Bamiyan.
1999 04 15
President Clinton criticizes Taliban abuse of human rights. Taliban condemn Clinton.
1999 04 21
Bamiyan falls to Hizb-e-Wahadat as Taliban withdraw, dozens killed and dozens more captured.
1999 04 28
Taliban bomb Bamiyan in bid to retake it; thirty civilians killed.
1999 04 29
Taliban, Pakistan, Turkmenistan sign agreement to revive gas pipeline through طالبانستان Afghanistan and pledge to find new sponsor for project. Hilary Clinton criticizes gender policy of Taliban in Washington.
1999 05 05
Iran and Uzbekistan issue joint statement in Tashkent to resist any Taliban takeover of افغانستان Afghanistan.
1999 05 09
Bamiyan retaken by Taliban after they launch attacks from north and south.
1999 05 12
Taliban delegation sign agreements with Turkmenistan to buy gas and electricity.
1999 05 14
USA issues first warnings to Pakistan not to support the Taliban and says it favors the return of ex-King Zahir Shah.
1999 05 20
Heavy fighting erupts. مسعود Masud fires 12 rockets into كابل Kabul, Bagram bombed by Taliban and fighting in the north.
1999 05 22
Taliban crush abortive uprising in هرات Herat, execute eight people in public and kill another 100. Taliban accuse Iran of distributing arms.
1999 05 28
Amnesty International accuse Taliban of killing civilians during their capture of Bamiyan. ملا عمر Mullah Omar holds meeting of several thousand Taliban commanders and mullahs in كندهار Kandahar for three days to discuss the movement's future.
1999 06 02
Uzbekistan's Foreign Minister Aziz Kamilov meets with ملا عمر Mullah Omar for first time in كندهار Kandahar. Taliban insist they will only attend next 'Six plus Two' conference in Tashkent if recognized as government of افغانستان Afghanistan.
1999 06 08
US FBI places بن لادن Bin Laden on top of ten most wanted fugitives. Fears of US attack on بن لادن Bin Laden increase.
1999 06 26
Ex-King Zahir Shah holds consultative meeting in Rome, but Taliban reject any peace-making role for him. USA closes seven embassies in Africa for three days because of بن لادن Bin Laden threats.
1999 07 06
US imposes trade and economic sanctions against Taliban and freeze their assets in the USA> Taliban prepare for massive summer offensive against مسعود Masud as thousands of Pakistani and hundreds of Arab recruits join Taliban.
1999 07 15
Former Senator Abdul Ahad Karzai, a leading Afghan nationalist, murdered in كوټه Quetta after meeting with Zahir Shah. The US State Department and the UN condemn the murder.
1999 07 16
The Foreign Ministers of Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet in Tashkent and pledge cooperation in combating Islamic extremism in Central Asia.
1999 07 19
The 'Six plus Two' talks begin in Tashkent. President Islam Karimov calls for cease-fire and UN session on Afghanistan.
1999 07 20
Tashkent talks without firm conclusions.
1999 07 23
مسعود Masud in Tashkent and meets with President Karimov.
1999 07 27
UN planes stop flying to كابل Kabul as rockest fired by مسعود Masud hit airport. Taliban offensive imminent.
1999 07 28
Taliban offensive begins on three fronts as they advance towards Bagram. 130 killed on both sides in first day of fighting.
1999 08 01
Bagram falls to Taliban, but heavy fighting as مسعود Masud tries to recapture it.
1999 08 02
Taliban capture چاریكار Charikar as مسعود Masud retreats to Panjshir. 200,000 people flee the Shomali valley creating new refugee crisis.
1999 08 03
طالبلن Taliban advance in north from Kunduz and take Imam Sahid and Sher Khan Bandar, cutting Masud's supply links to Tajikistan. 3000 casualties in fighting so far.
1999 08 05
مسعود Masud counter-attacks and retakes چاريكار Charikar and pushes Taliban back to former positions near كابل Kabul. 400 Taliban killed and 500 captured.
1999 08 08
مسعود Masud recaptures lost ground in the north.
1999 08 10
Washington freezes assets of Taliban airline Ariana in the USA because of its links to بن لادن Bin Laden.
1999 08 13
Taliban retake Bagram.
1999 08 15
UN appeals to Taliban not to create more refugees and halt fighting as Taliban pursue scorched-earth policy in Shomali valley. Thousands arrested in كابل Kabul.