Amino acid

Amino acids have important roles in living organisms: they are the subunits (building blocks) of […]


A sugar consists of a chain of carbons; one carbon is double-bonded to oxygen to […]


Enzymes are proteins that lower activation energy. They are catalysts. They accelerate reactions, but do […]


Lipids are broadly defined as any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occurring molecules. The term is also used […]

Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

[E]Concentration of free enzyme. [S]Concentration of free substrate. [ES]Concentration of enzyme-substrate complex. This is equal […]


Small chains of amino acids are known as peptides. These are biochemically very important; most […]


A protein's biological specificity is determined by its structure and chemistry. Proteins can be separated […]

Protein analysis

Separation / Purification The first step in the study of a protein is to separate […]


In living organisms, chiral molecules (capable of forming different stereoisomers) are usually present in only […]


Water is stable Liquid water is essential for life because it provides stability and richness. […]

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