5'-Deletion Mutants

These mutations help determine the transcriptional control region of a gene. The 5' region keeps […]

Adenovirus Promoter Experiment

Promoters in E. coli were found using bacteriophages like λ and T7, which act very […]

Ames Test

The Ames Test is used to determine the strength of a mutagen. Auxotrophic strains of […]

cDNA Microarray

cDNA is single-stranded DNA that has been reverse-transcribed in vitro from cellular mRNA. By soaking […]

Cloning Vectors

Vector DNA (or just vector, for short) is a DNA molecule which exists within a […]


Determining whether or not cells can transfer genetic material by direct contact. Lederberg and Tatum […]

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting (aka DNA profiling) is useful for: paternity testing; establishing twin zygosity; determining bone […]

DNA Miniprep

The goal of a DNA miniprep is to isolate only plasmid DNA from a prokaryote. […]

Gel Shift Assay

If the protein can recognize the sequence on an RNA or DNA, then the protein […]

Gene Control in Development: Laboratory Techniques

Visualizing Differential Gene Expression In Situ HybridizationShows Antibody Staining Microarray Analysis Direct RNA InjectionThis entails […]

Gene Targeting

Gene-targeting allows creation of knockouts and insertion of new genes. Gene targeting can have a […]

Genetic Engineering

TransgeneCloned genes being introduced into host (usually eukaryotic). Transgenic OrganismOrganism receiving transgene. Ectopic insertionsWhen transgenes […]

Genetic screen

Genetic screening has identified certain cytoplasmic determinants. Genetic screening is made difficult by diploidy, and […]

In Vitro Nuclear Run-on Experiment

The in vitro nuclear run-on experiment is a great way for isolated specific RNA transcript. […]

Interrupted Mating Experiment

The Interrupted Mating Experiment basically uses the following steps: Cells are mixed, then shaken to […]

Knockout mutation

One can use recombinant DNA techniques to make a "knockout" mutation in the gene in […]

Linkage analysis

Linkage is the tendency of genes, which are closely located on the same chromosome, to […]

Polymerase Chain Reaction

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates specific genetic sequences (DNA or RNA, in either plus- […]

Promoter (Transcriptional) (RNA) Fusion

Transcriptional gene fusion, aka promoter fusion or RNA fusion is used to measure mRNA stability. […]

Reporter Gene

Reporter genes are fused to DNA fragments from a test gene or promoter. Reporter genes […]

Restriction Enzymes (Endonucleases )

Restriction enzymes (aka restriction endonucleases) recognize specific 4-8 bp double-stranded DNA sequences and cut the […]

Sequence Alignment

TermOverview SimilarityThe measure of bases or amino acids that are either identical or very similar […]

Shotgun sequencing

Shotgun sequencing is a very fast process for finding the nucleotide sequence of a genome. […]

Temperature Sensitive Mutant Experiment

Mutant proteins are usually unstable. They are called temperature sensitive mutants because at lower temperatures […]


Transformation is the uptake of genetic information from the environment. This usually occurs when a […]


A transgene is a gene randomly inserted into a host genome (the transgenic organism). Transgenics […]

Translational (Protein) Fusion

Translational Gene Fusion is used to measure protein localization by quantifying promoter activity. The fusion […]

Transposon Tagging

We start with a stepr F- strain and mix with E.coli that is strepr and […]

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