Amsterdam is a mess of countless H&M's, sneaker shops and luxury resellers. Breaking this thick […]

Ancient Near East burial practices

Cist BurialFound at Gezer. Phoenician TophetsFound at Achzib and Ruqeish. Phoenician Shaft TombsPhoenician shaft tombs […]

Bit Hilani

A bit hilani (Akkadian) was a type of palace or large public building in the […]


Cuneiform writing uses wedge shapes impressed on (usually small) clay tablets, inscribed on stone monuments, […]


Sack of Susa~1100 BCSack of Susa by Nebuchadnezzar I. Recension~1100 - 740 BC Resurgence740 - […]


Existing from the 8th-1st centuries BC, Etruscan civilization inhabited part of western central Italy. They […]

Finnish Name Day

Each Finnish bay is named for a certain saint. The name day is that saint's […]


The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes from east of the Rhine. Roman authorities […]


Apulia900-200 BCApulia is the part of Italy closest to Greece, and Mycenaean Greeks began trading […]


Italy was devastated by the wars of the short-lived Byzantine reconquest after 553 and the […]

Medieval Europe

Early Medieval EuropeAD 300-1100The transition from the late Roman world to that of medieval successor […]

Near Eastern architectural decoration

The Sumerians used mud bricks to decorative ends, not only with the quintessential niched-and-buttressed façade […]

Near Eastern architecture

Limitations -- Financial constraints, lack of reed structures A composite image must be drawn for […]

Near Eastern private dwellings

Before addressing the details of floor plans, it is imperative to understand the concept of […]

Near Eastern town planning

Each house was provided with its own source of light, and since the only carriers […]

Near Eastern ziggurats

Sumerian ziggurats The date of the earliest ziggurats is likely in the late Early Dynastic […]


The Ostrogoths originally came from the Ukraine. Under king Theoderic they had migrated through the […]

Protestant Reformation

In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation transformed religion in Europe. The Catholic Church, long […]

René Descartes

Born in France1596René Descartes was born into a world where religious conflict had been the […]

Ryijy rug

Ryijy rugs are Finland's most famous textile, and were made for centuries in rural areas. […]


The Samnites were a warlike mountain race put up Italy's fiercest resistance to the onslaught […]

Stamp and cylinder seals

Individuals and administrative bodies used seals to denote ownership of items and to authenticate documents. […]


To distinguish this type of mud brick from others (such as adobe, which is from […]


A population of ancient Italy, Umbrians lived east of the Tiber among the hills of […]


MigrationAD 409The Vandals, Alans, Suevi and other peoples migrated from central Europe to the Roman […]

كوردستان Kurdistan

The Kurdish people, who are thought to be descended from the Medes of central Asia, […]

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